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13 - Chapter 13 TELESCOPING THE TIMES Changes on the...

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Chapter 13 TELESCOPING THE TIMES Changes on the Western Frontier CHAPTER OVERVIEW In the late 1800s, growing numbers of white settlers move to the West, and Native Americans lose their lands. Railroads cross the nation. The open range gives way to fenced ranches. Populism rises and falls. Section 1: Cultures Clash on the Prairie MAIN IDEA The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined. Native Americans of the Great Plains followed a way of life centered on the horse and buffalo. Buffalo provided food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials. These Native Americans lived in family groups or large clans. The leaders of a tribe ruled by counsel rather than force. After the Civil War, the Plains attracted tens of thousands of white settlers who wanted to own land. Many went to Colorado to mine gold. The Homestead Act offered cheap land to farmers, attracting more than 400,000 from 1862 to 1900. Several thousand were African Americans. Others were immigrants from Germany and Scandinavia. Earlier the government had granted the entire Plains to Native Americans. As more white settlers wished to move there, the government made new treaties restricting the land that Native Americans could use. Conflict erupted. In 1864, a militia attacked a camp of Cheyenne, killing 200, mostly women and children. Meanwhile the Sioux chief Red Cloud protested white settlers moving to the Black Hills, an area sacred to his people. Some Sioux signed a treaty that accepted living on a reservation but others refused. In 1874, Colonel George Armstrong Custer reported that the Black Hills held gold. A new gold rush began, and the government offered to buy the land. The Sioux refused, and the army moved in. Custer and his soldiers were all killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. Within months, though, the army defeated the Sioux.
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