14 - Chapter 14: TELESCOPING THE TIMES A New Industrial Age...

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Chapter 14: TELESCOPING THE TIMES A New Industrial Age CHAPTER OVERVIEW Technological innovations and the growth of the railroad industry help fuel an industrial boom. Some business leaders follow corrupt practices, and workers, suffering harsh working conditions, try to organize. Section 1: The Expansion of Industry MAIN IDEA At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fueled an industrial boom. As settlement continued in the West, the nation was being transformed by vast changes in technology. Fuel—in the form of kerosene refined from oil or coal—helped spur growth. So did plentiful supplies of iron. Iron became even more useful when the Bessemer process, developed about 1850, allowed workers to efficiently turn it into steel. With the open-hearth method, devised in 1886, even more steel was produced. Steel came to be used in railroads, in farm tools such as the plow and reaper, and to make cans for preserving food. Engineers also used steel to make the new bridge connecting New York City and Brooklyn and to build skyscrapers. Thomas Alva Edison established a research laboratory in 1876 in order to develop new inventions. He devised an incandescent light and began to organize power plants to generate electricity. Cities built electric railways, and businesses built factories powered by electricity. The typewriter (1867) and the telephone (1876) appeared for the first time. These and other inventions changed daily life. More women began to work in offices; by 1910, women were about 40 percent of the clerical work force. The average work week decreased by about ten hours, and people enjoyed more leisure time. Section 2: The Age of the Railroads MAIN IDEA The growth and consolidation of railroads benefited the nation but also led to corruption and required government regulation. By 1890, rail lines totaled more than 200,000 miles. But building and running the
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2010 for the course GOVT 131 taught by Professor Kenroberts during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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14 - Chapter 14: TELESCOPING THE TIMES A New Industrial Age...

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