A_CHAPTER29 - Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and...

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Martin Luther King, Jr., waving to the crowd at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, D.C. (1963). Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African Americans. But disagreements among civil rights groups lead to a violent period for the civil rights movement. NEXT
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NEXT Civil Rights SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Taking on Segregation The Triumphs of a Crusade Challenges and Changes in the Movement
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Section 1 Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. NEXT
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The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson • Civil Rights Act of 1875 act outlawed segregation • In 1883, all-white Supreme Court declares Act unconstitutional • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal constitutional • Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races • Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites Taking on Segregation 1 SECTION NEXT Image Continued . . .
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Segregation Continues into the 20 th Century • After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape racism • North: housing in all-black areas, whites resent job competition 1 SECTION NEXT continued The Segregation System A Developing Civil Rights Movement • WW II creates job opportunities for African Americans • Need for fighting men makes armed forces end discriminatory policies • FDR ends government, war industries discrimination • Returning black veterans fight for civil rights at home
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Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy • Professor Charles Hamilton Houston leads NAACP legal campaign • Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education • Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall - win 29 out of 32 cases argued before Supreme Court 1 SECTION NEXT Brown v. Board of Education • Marshall’s greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka • In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation
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Reaction to the Brown Decision Resistance to School Desegregation • Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate • Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist • Court hands Brown II , orders desegregation at “all deliberate speed” • Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible 1 SECTION NEXT Continued . . .
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continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock • Since 1948, Arkansas integrating state university, private groups • Gov. Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students • Elizabeth Eckford faces abusive crowd when she tries to enter school • Eisenhower has Nat. Guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance • African-American students harassed by whites at
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A_CHAPTER29 - Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and...

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