am_eng_ch2 - The Americans(Survey Chapter 2 TELESCOPING THE...

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1 The Americans (Survey) Chapter 2: TELESCOPING THE TIMES The American Colonies Emerge CHAPTER OVERVIEW As the Spanish build an empire in the Americas, other European nations plant colonies in North America. The English come to dominate the Atlantic Coast. Section 1: Spain’s Empire in the Americas MAIN IDEA Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish conquered Central and portions of North America. Following Columbus’s voyage, other Spanish explorers—called conquistadors (conquerors)—came to the New World. They destroyed Native American societies, won fortunes and fame, and made Spain the most powerful nation on earth. In 1521, Hernando Cortés used Native American allies and better weapons to conquer the Aztecs. The Aztecs had been weakened by disease. The Spaniards burned the Aztec capital and quickly built a new Spanish-style city as capital of the colony they named New Spain. Many Spaniards married Native American women, creating a large mestizo—or mixed Spanish and Native American—population. Conquistadors received grants called encomiendas which gave them the right to force Native Americans into slave labor on farms, ranches, or mines. Priests often protested the encomienda system because of its cruelty to Native Americans. After the Spanish crown ended the system in 1542, Spanish landowners used African slaves. As conquistadors spread from Mexico, the Spanish empire in the New World grew. It included the Caribbean islands, Central America, and most of South America. Gold and silver from the New World made Spain wealthy.
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2 The Spanish also moved into the present-day United States. In 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés established a small settlement at St. Augustine, the oldest European-founded city in the present United States. Other explorers traveled through the Southwest and southern Plains. They found no gold, but they were soon followed by missionaries who hoped to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism. In the winter of 1609-1610, Pedro de Peralta established a settlement he called Santa Fe. Native Americans, led by Popé, rose to resist the growing Spanish presence. In 1680 they
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2010 for the course GOVT 131 taught by Professor Kenroberts during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

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am_eng_ch2 - The Americans(Survey Chapter 2 TELESCOPING THE...

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