am_eng_ch12 - The Americans (Survey) Chapter 12:...

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1 The Americans (Survey) Chapter 12: TELESCOPING THE TIMES Reconstruction and Its Effects CHAPTER OVERVIEW As Congress enacts a policy of punishing the South for the Civil War, African Americans struggle to establish new lives. Eventually, the North tires of Reconstruction, and Southern whites regain control over the South. Section 1: The Politics of Reconstruction MAIN IDEA Congress opposed Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South. Reconstruction refers to the period from 1865 to 1877, when the country rebuilt from war and the federal government determined how the Southern states were to reenter the Union. Lincoln wanted the Southern states to rejoin quickly. His plan readmitted a state once 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance. He also promised to pardon most former Confederates. Four states applied for readmission under this plan, but Radical Republicans in Congress blocked them. They wanted to deny power to former slave owners and to give the right to vote to African Americans. They passed a more severe bill in 1864, but Lincoln vetoed it. After Lincoln was killed, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee became president. His Reconstruction policy was also lenient. Among its provisions, a state had to declare secession illegal and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery. Many Southern states met these terms, and in December 1865, new Southern members of Congress arrived in Washington. The Radicals—outraged because many of these members had served in the Confederate government or fought in its armies—refused to seat the new members. Congress passed a law extending the Freedmen’s Bureau, which had been created to help former slaves
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2 adjust to a new life. It also passed a civil rights bill. This law made African Americans citizens and banned the black codes. The codes were new Southern laws that restricted African Americans’ freedom. Johnson, feeling the two bills made the federal government too powerful, vetoed both.
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am_eng_ch12 - The Americans (Survey) Chapter 12:...

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