lec7 - Last Time Clausius Clapyron equation Solutions Molar...

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1 Last Time Clausius – Clapyron equation • Solutions Molar solubility – saturation conditions -Liquids/solids – moles solute/volume solvent -Liquid/gas – Henry’s Law Solubility Trends Likes dissolve likes – polar/nonpolar – Driven by molecular interactions – Hydrophobic – fear of water – Hydrophilic – love of water Gases – cooling increases, heating decreases Ions – charge and size Uses of Ion Solubilities Fertilizers – PO 4 3– HPO 4 2– Davis water – tastes bad, scale CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) HCO 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 2HCO 3 (aq) CO 3 2– (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)
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2 Quantifying Solubility • Thermodynamics – NH 4 NO 3 dissolves endothermically – LiCl dissolves exothermically Enthalpy of Solution – dilute aq. solutions – Lattice Enthalpy – Δ H L : solid gas – Enthalpy of hydration – Δ H hyd : gas liquid – Hess’ Law
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3 Example Calculate the enthalpy of solution
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