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chapter14_post - Chapter 14 - Hurricanes Geographic origins...

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Chapter 14 -- Hurricanes Geographic origins of hurricanes How hurricanes are named Hurricane intensity scale Areas at risk How hurricanes work Hurricane characteristics Conditions needed for a hurricane to form Hurricane damages – Storm surge (rapid rise in sea level) – Wave damage – Wind damage – Rainfall and flooding – Mudflows Prediction of hurricane paths and intensity Hurricane Katrina Mitigation of hurricane damage Planning and preparation Evacuation Building codes Insurance
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Hurricane Origins 12% 12% 7% 12% 15% 12% 30% cyclones hurricanes typhoons
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How Are Hurricanes Named? • First use of proper names for cyclones by Australian forecaster in early 20 th century “after political figures whom he disliked” • 1950s-1952: North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes were identified by phonetic alphabet, then women’s names • 1979: National Weather Service six rotating lists of men’s and women’s names, with names of destructive hurricanes retired • Pacific typhoons were assigned English women’s names, but since 2000, names suggested by various nations: flowers, animals, birds, trees, foods
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Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
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Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
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Areas at Risk Every year: 80-90 tropical storms 45 hurricanes 6 named hurricanes in Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
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Areas at Risk Potential number of hurricane strikes per 100 years >60 40-60 20-40
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Tropical storms and hurricanes by month, for 1944-2000 (North Atlantic region) Month Total Average January–April 3 0.1 May 8 0.1 June 31 0.5 July 50 0.9 August 151 2.6 September 198 3.5 October 100 1.8 November 26 0.5 December 4 0.1 http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/deadly/Table8.htm North Atlantic Hurricane Frequency
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Color on sea is precipitation Tan surfaces represent clouds Arrows are wind speed Storm is vertically exaggerated Hurricane acts as heat engine transfers heat from warm surface into upper atmosphere Average hurricane releases ~6.0x10 14 watts of heat (from condensation), ~200 x global electrical generating capacity How Hurricanes Work
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As rotation begins, chimney forms Warm moist air is pulled into chimney ( strong winds towards eye of hurricane) and up into upper atmosphere Warm air in upper atmosphere cools, condenses and releases heat provides energy to storm system Hurricane exists until warm moist air supply at surface is cut off http://www.answers.com/topic/hurricane How Hurricanes Work
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Necessary conditions for hurricane formation: • Warm seawater (> 80 o F) • Warm and humid air • Weak upper-level winds Hurricane strength appears correlated with sea surface temperature
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Atlantic Avg. El Niño Avg. Named storms
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chapter14_post - Chapter 14 - Hurricanes Geographic origins...

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