Chapter 6 outlineGeneration of magmas (magmas are usually generated in the mantle)Increase T in mantleLower P in mantleadd water to mantleKey properties of magma that control the style/magnitude of eruptionViscosity (controlled by magma chemical composition)Volatile content Volume of magmaControls and classes of magma/lava chemical compositionBasaltAndesiteRhyolitePlate Tectonic Settings of VolcanoesVolcanism at spreading ridgesDeveloped spreading ridges (mid-ocean ridges)Continental divergenceVolcanism at subduction zonesVolcanism at hot spots (intraplate volcanism)Volcanic Eruption ProductsLava (aa, pahoehoe)Pyroclastic materials (ash, glass, pumice)Eruptive StylesHawaiianStrombolianVulcanianPlinianVolcanic Explosivity IndexVolcanic landforms (cinder cones, shield volcanoes,stratovolcanoes,lava domes, calderas)
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VolcanismDefinitions:1. Volcanic force or activity.2. The phenomena associated with volcanic activity.Volcano: the word comes from Vulcano, the name of an island in Italy. Legend has it that the Roman god Vulcan worked inside Vulcano (or Etna). His nasty temperament and fits of rage were greatly feared. Vulcan forged weapons of war for the gods, and without provocation, he could destroy people and their property, with fire and lightning, lava flow, or volcanic explosions.