Chapter5_post - Current events: 7.6M quake in Padang,...

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Current events: 7.6M quake in Padang, Sumatra September 30, 2009 Source: BBC Casualties: 1000?
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Tsunami--outline Tsunami Generation By earthquakes: Mechanisms Examples (Chile, Alaska, Sumatra, Samoa) By volcanic eruptions: mechanisms By landslides and volcano flank collapse: mechanisms By meteorite impact Tsunami Propagation and Coastal Effects Tsunami wave characteristics Wave movements Wind waves vs. tsunami waves Tsunami characteristics in open ocean and onshore Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Land use planning Warning systems Surviving a tsunami Future Giant Tsunami—where can we expect them?
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Sometimes referred to as “ Tidal waves” by general public - but tsunami are unrelated to tides (although a tsunami's impact upon a coastline is dependent upon tidal level) Japanese word: top character “tsu” means harbor ”; bottom character “nami” means “ wave Hokusai , Thirty-Six Views of Fuji #20 The Great Wave Off Kanagawai Tsunami
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Tsunami Generation Abbott (2008) 29 Sept 2009 Earthquake 3m Samoa/American Samoa >100
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Tsunami Generation Tsunami are generated by any sudden displacement of large volume of water Most tsunami are generated during shallow-focus, underwater earthquakes which cause sudden rise or fall of seafloor, displacing large volume of water Most commonly, earthquake is on reverse or thrust fault in a subduction zone (occasionally on normal fault)
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Tsunami Generated by Earthquakes Before earthquake
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Tsunami Generated by Earthquakes
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Tsunami Generated by Earthquakes Height of tsunami wave depends on - Earthquake magnitude - Area of rupture zone - Rate and volume of water displaced - Direction of ocean floor motion - Depth of water above rupture
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Tsunami Generated by Earthquakes Most vulnerable parts of U.S. and Canada are - Hawaii - Pacific coast: California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alaska Around the Pacific Ocean: on average, major tsunami forms once a decade; 30-meter-high wave hits once every 20 years Subduction zones are likely sources of tsunami-generating earthquakes
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An Ocean-Wide Tsunami from a Giant Earthquake: Chile Tsunami, 1960 Largest earthquake in historical record with magnitude 9.5 Three waves killed more than 2,000 people in Chile 15 hours later 4- meter-high waves killed 61 people in Hilo, Hawaii; another 9 hours later, 5-meter- high waves killed 185 people in Japan
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2010 for the course GEO 107 taught by Professor Stidham during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter5_post - Current events: 7.6M quake in Padang,...

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