Lecture 12 - Soil and Erosion

Lecture 12 - Soil and Erosion - Soil Color Color is...

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Color is independent of bedrock Black color in soil is due to humus Red, yellow, brown: oxidized iron and low humus content Gray or blue soil in humid climate: reduced iron Gray or white soil in dry climate: low humus, high salt Long Island has mainly tan or brown top soil Maryland and areas farther south have reddish soil Warmer, less humus to darken soil Soil Color
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Mechanical Breakdown – Ice or salts get into cracks, expansion and contraction from heating and cooling Chemical Breakdown – Mostly in form of reaction of water on rocks near surface Solution acids from plants and atmosphere (such as carbonic, sulfuric, nitric, and various organic acids) react with surface rocks or sediments to form soil Limestone dissolves relatively easily Silicates dissolve more slowly, leaving dominantly clays and Al and Fe oxides Formation of Soil Processes
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Biological effects One kg of soil may contain as many as 500 billion bacteria 10 billion actinomycetes one billion fungi Bacteria and fungi consume organic matter, mainly
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