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APBioGeneticsReivew - 8 A gene's location along a...

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Unformatted text preview: ____ 8. A gene's location along a chromosome is known as which of the following? a. Allele b. Sequence c. Locus d. Variant e. Trait 9. After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is a. diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid. b. diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids. c. haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid. d. haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids. e. tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids. For the following questions, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below. I. Prophase IV. Prophase II II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II ____ ____ 10. Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle; alignment determines independent assortment. a. I b. II c. IV d. VII e. VIII 11. Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur. a. I b. II c. IV d. VI e. VII 12. Centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate. a. II b. III c. IV d. V e. VII You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in Figure 13.3. Refer to the graph to answer the following questions. ____ ____ Figure 13.3 ____ 13. Which sample might represent a sperm cell? a. I b. II c. III d. Either I or II e. Either II or III The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below. 1. Formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus 2. Alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate 3. Separation of sister chromatids 4. Separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere 5. Synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs ____ 14. Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? a. Chromosome replication b. Synapsis of chromosomes c. Production of daughter cells d. Alignment of chromosomes at the equator e. Condensation of chromatin Refer to the following information and Figure 13.4 to answer the following questions. A certain (hypothetical) organism is diploid, has either blue or orange wings as the consequence of one of its genes, and has either long or short antennae as the result of a second gene, as shown in Figure 13.4. Figure 13.4 ____ 15. A certain female's chromosomes 12 both have the blue gene and chromosomes 19 both have the long gene. As cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have which of the following? a. Either two chromosomes 12 with blue genes or two with orange genes b. Either two chromosomes 19 with long genes or two with short genes c. Either one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one long and one short gene d. One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene 16. If a female of this species has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and another chromosome 12 with an orange gene, she will produce which of the following egg types? a. Only blue gene eggs b. Only orange gene eggs c. 1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggs d. 3/4 blue and 1/4 orange gene eggs e. An indeterminate frequency of blue and orange gene eggs Use the information given here to answer the following questions. Feather color in budgies is determined by two different genes Y and B, one for pigment on the outside and one for the inside of the feather. YYBB, YyBB, or YYBb is green; yyBB or yyBb is blue; YYbb or Yybb is yellow; and yybb is white. ____ 17. A blue budgie is crossed with a white budgie. Which of the following results is not possible? a. Green offspring only b. Yellow offspring only c. Blue offspring only d. Green and yellow offspring e. a 9:3:3:1 ratio ____ ____ 18. Two blue budgies were crossed. Over the years, they produced 22 offspring, 5 of which were white. What are the most likely genotypes for the two blue budgies? a. yyBB and yyBB b. yyBB and yyBb c. yyBb and yyBb d. yyBB and yybb e. yyBb and yybb 19. Cystic fibrosis affects the lungs, the pancreas, the digestive system, and other organs, resulting in symptoms ranging from breathing difficulties to recurrent infections. Which of the following terms best describes this? a. Incomplete dominance b. Multiple alleles c. Pleiotropy d. Epistasis 20. Hydrangea plants of the same genotype are planted in a large flower garden. Some of the plants produce blue flowers and others pink flowers. This can be best explained by which of the following? a. Environmental factors such as soil pH b. The allele for blue hydrangea being completely dominant c. The alleles being codominant d. The fact that a mutation has occurred e. Acknowledging that multiple alleles are involved 21. Huntington's disease is a dominant condition with late age of onset in humans. If one parent has the disease, what is the probability that his or her child will have the disease? a. 1 b. 3/4 c. 1/2 d. 1/4 e. 0 22. A woman has six sons. The chance that her next child will be a daughter is a. 1. b. 0. c. 1/2. d. 1/6. e. 5/6. 23. The frequency of heterozygosity for the sickle cell anemia allele is unusually high, presumably because this reduces the frequency of malaria. Such a relationship is related to which of the following? a. Mendel's law of independent assortment b. Mendel's law of segregation c. Darwin's explanation of natural selection d. Darwin's observations of competition e. The malarial parasite changing the allele ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Match each of the following terms with its correct definition. a. Cell division that is modified to generate haploid cells b. The haploid products of meiosis c. The matching of homologous pairs of chromosomes during prophase I d. A term used to describe cells having two sets of chromosomes e. Diploid body cells that do not undergo meiosis f. A term used to describe cells having a single set of chromosomes g. A life strategy that involves fusion of haploid gametes from two source organisms to form a diploid cell h. Another name for crossover sites i. A variant of a particular gene having a slightly different DNA sequence than another variant of the same gene j. The diploid product of gamete fusion k. The process of gamete fusion ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 24. gametes 25. somatic cells 26. sexual reproduction 27. fertilization 28. meiosis 29. haploid 30. diploid 31. allele 32. synapsis 33. chiasmata Use the processes listed below for the following question(s). a. Prophase I b. Prometaphase I c. Metaphase I d. Anaphase I e. Telophase I f. Prophase II g. Prometaphase II h. Metaphase II i. Anaphase II j. Telophase II ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 34. This stage is always characterized by the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. 35. Homologous chromosomes undergo recombination. 36. Tetrads align at the metaphase plate. 37. Spindles are disassembled and replaced by new spindles. 38. In some species, the nuclear envelope may reform during this stage. 39. Nuclear envelope reforms in ALL species. 40. Sister chromatids are separated. 41. Flower position, stem length, and seed shape were three characters that Mendel studied. Each is controlled by an independently assorting gene and has dominant and recessive expression as follows: Character Flower position Stem length Seed shape Dominant Axial (A) Tall (T) Round (R) Recessive Terminal (a) Dwarf (t) Wrinkled (r) If a plant that is heterozygous for all three characters is allowed to self-fertilize, what proportion of the offspring would you expect to be as follows? (Note: Use the rules of probability instead of a huge Punnett square.) A) Homozygous for the three dominant traits B) Homozygous for the three recessive traits C) Heterozygous for all three characters D) Homozygous for axial and tall, heterozygous for seed shape Answers 1.C 2. A 3. E 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. E 8. C 9. D 10. B 11. A 12. E 13. C 14. B 15. D 16. C 17. D 18. C 19. C 20. A 21. C 22. C 23. C 24. B 25. E 26. G 27. K 28. A 29. F 30. D 31. I 32. C 33. H 34. A 35. A 36. C 37. E 38. E 39. J 40. I 41. A) 1/64, B) 1/64, C) 1/8, D) 1/32 ...
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