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exam2 - Gibbs Psych 100 Winter 2008 EXAM 2 1 At the most...

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Unformatted text preview: Gibbs Psych 100 Winter, 2008 EXAM 2 1. At the most general level, memory processes include a. Encoding b. Storage c. Retrieval d. All of the above 2. The shape of serial position curves was thought by many psychologists to be strong evidence for a. The existence of two memory systems The existence of proactive interference Decay in memory performance The need for rehearsal to remember items p.953” 3. The three structural components of the modal model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin) are a. Receptors, occipital lobe, temporal lobe h. Receptors, temporal lobe, frontal lobe c. Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory (1. Sensory memory, iconic memory, rehearsal memory 4. We are conscious of memories. 3. Implicit b. Procedural c. Declarative d. All of the above 5- Brief sensory memory for sound is known as a. lcOnic memory to. Primary auditory memory c. Echoic memory (1. Pro-perceptual auditory memory 6. Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT a. Deciding which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention b. Filling in the blanks when the stimulation is intermittent c. Holding incorning information briefly during initial processing d. Collecting information to be processed 7. 10. ll. Jill’s friends tell her they think she has a really good memory. She finds this interesting so she decides to purposefully test her memory. Jill receives a list of to-do tasks each day at work. Usually, she checks oft" each item as the day progresses. This week, she is determined to memorize the to-do lists. On Monday, Jill is proud to find that she remembers 95% of the tasks without referring to the list. On Tuesday, her memory drops to 80%, and by Thursday, she is dismayed to see her perfonnance has declined to 20%. Jill is demonstrating a natural mechanism of memory known as a. Retroactive interference b. Episodic buffering c. Chunking d. Proactive interference The effective duration of short—term memory, when rehearsal is prevented, is 3. Between a fraction ofa second and 3 seconds 1). 15 to 20 seconds c l to 3 minutes d 5 to 7 minutes STM’s capacity is best estimated as 7' (plus or minus two) a. Meaningful units b. Digits or letters c. Words d. Sentences Research compared memory of chess masters and beginner chess players for the position of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that the chess masters remembered positions better than the beginners when the board was arranged consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. The importance of this finding was that a. Experts show larger STM capabilities than beginners b. Knowledge in an area of expertise increases a person’s digit span memory 0. Expertise with some material reduces susceptibility to proactive interference d. Chunking takes place when a person has knowledge of familiar patterns or concepts Consider your knowledge of STM. Let’s say we conduct an experiment where participants see a number of target letters flashed briefly on a screen and are told to immediately write down the letters in the order they were presented. It is MOST LIKELY that the target letter “P” will be misidentified as L 9-957.” I R C 12. 13. 14. 15. I6. 17. The emphasis of the concept of working memory is on how information is a. Permanently stored b. Manipulated 0. Forgotten d. Perceived Imagine yourself as you walked today to your first class on campus. Your ability to form such a picture in your mind depends on a. The STM recency effect b. Delayed response coding c. The phonological 100p d. The visuospatial sketch pad It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if a. One is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological 100p b. Both are handled by the sketch pad 0. Both are handled by the phonological loop d. Both b and c are correct In studies of working memory, which list of words is recalled worst? a. MAP MAD MAN b. COW BUN DAY c. BIG LONG LARGE (1. OLD FOWL LATE Stemberg (1966) investigated retrieval processes in STM. He had two questions to answer. First, is STM retrieval a parallel or a serial process? And, second, is STM retrieval exhaustive or self-terminating? He found that ST M is . a. Parallel and exhaustive b. Parallel and self-terminating c. Serial and exhaustive d . Serial and self-terminating When children learn to tie their shoes, they are organizing this information into what type of memory? a. Factual memory I). Episodic memory c. Procedural memory d. Declarative memory 18. 19. 20. 2]. 22. Murdoch’s “remembering a list” experiment described the serial position curve and found that memory is best for the ofa list. a. First 5 words b. Middle 5 words c. Last 5 words (1. First 5 and the last 5 words Think about the serial position curve. Which of the following events will most likely cause the recency effect to disappear? a. Inserting a 30-sccond delay before recall b. Presenting the stimulus list at a slower pace 0. Counting backward for 30 seconds before recall (1. Using a very long list (greater than 30 items at one item per second) Which of the following is NOT an example of semantic memory? a. I remember that more than 33% of US. drivers have admitted to using a cell phone when driving I). I remember that experiments have shown that talking on cell phones can impair driving ability 6. I remember the day that I got my first cell phone d. All of the above are examples of semantic memory Your text describes K.C., a man who suffered severe brain damage in a motorcycle accident. K.C. remembers facts like the difference between a strike and a spare in bowling, but he is unaware of experiencing things like hearing about the circumstances of his brother’s death which occurred two years before his motorcycle accident. His memory behavior suggests a. Intact semantic memory but defective episodic memory b. Intact procedural memory but defective semantic memory 0. Intact episodic memory but defective semantic memory (1. Intact episodic memory but defective procedural memory Imagine that the students described below are all taking a multiple»choice test. Which student’s behavior best describes an example of implicit memory? a. One student comes to a question for which he is unsure of the answer, but choice “b” seems familiar so he decides that it must be the right choice b. One student remembers the correct answer to a question as wet! as where the information can be found in his notes 0. One student has no idea what an answer was supposed to be so she guesses. d. One student is sure he does not know the answer for a question so he leaves it blank. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. This multiple choice question is an example of what sort of memory task? a. Recall b. Recognition c. Speed of reaction d. Personal semantic memory According to the levels of processing theory, which of the following tasks will produce the BEST long-term memory for a set of words? a. Making a connection between each word and something you have previously learned b. Deciding how many vowels each word has 0. Generating a rhyming werd for each word to be remembered d. Repeating the words over and over in your mind Free recall of the list “apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants" will MOST LIKELY yield which of these response patterns? a. “apple, desk, shoe, coat, lamp, pants” b. “apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants” 0. “apple, cherry, plum, shoe, coat, lamp, chair" d. “apple, chair, cherry, coat, desk, lamp, plum, shoe, sofa” Bransford and Johnson’s study had participants hear a passage which turned out to be about a man on the street serenading his girlfriend in a tall building. The wording of the passage made it difficult to understand, but looking at a picture made it easier to understand. The results of this study illustrated he importance of in forming reliable long~term memories. _ a. Implicit memory during learning b. An organizational context during learning c. Deep processing during retrieval (1. Imagery People often report this annoying memory failure. They walk from one end of their house to the other for something and when they get to their destination, they forget what they went to the other side of the house for. As soon as they return to the first room, they are reminded of what they wanted in the first place. This common experience best illustrates the principle of a. The self-reference effect b. Maintenance rehearsal c. Levels of processing theory (1. Encoding specificity 28. Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements? a. It is vivid memory for emotional events b. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event 0. It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time d. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for emotional events 29. The “telephone game” is often played by children. One child creates a short story 30. 31. and whiSpers it to a second child. The second child does the same to a third child and this process continues until all the children have heard the story. Then, the last child recites the story to the group. Generally, the last child’s reproduction of the story is shorter than the original and it contains many omissions and errors. This game shows how memory is a process. a. Life—narrative b. Narrative-rehearsal c. Consequentially based d. Constructive In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants remembered some things, like books, that weren’t actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of on memory. a. Schemas b. Scripts c. Confabulation d. Bias You are a public defense attorney helping your client before her lineup. What should you request of the police to help ensure the fairest lineup (that would allow the eyewitness to make the most accurate ID) for your client? Choose the option below that would provide your client with the BEST circumstance: a. A sequential lineup, make sure the witness knows that the suspect is in the lineup b. A simultaneous lineup, make sure the witness knows that the suspect may or may not be in the lineup, c. A sequential lineup, ensure all people in the lineup match the witness description of the SUspect d. A simultaneous lineup, ensure all people in the lineup match the witness description of the suspect 32. The “sleep list” experiment in which many people misremember the word “sleep” as being part of a list of words when it was not is an example of a. A repeated recall error E). A disadvantage of memory’s constructive nature 0. Misleading postevent information’s influence on memory d. Retroative interference 33. Loftus and Palmer’s “car-crash slides” experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person’s memory report. In this study, the Misleading Postevent Information (MP1) was (were) the word(s) a. “fast” b. “smashed” c. “miles per hour” (1. “car eras ” 34. Research on eyewitness testimony has shown that the more confident the person giving the testimony is of his or her memories a. The more accurate the memories are 13. The more convincing the testimony is to a jury c. The more likely the testifier is to be influenced by a weapons focus d. Both “a” and “b” 35. Which statement below is NOT true based on the results of memory research? a. Suggestion can create false memories for an event that a person has experienced just recently I). Suggestion can create false memories for events that occurred when a person was a young child c. Although eyewitness testimony is often faulty, people who have just viewed a videotape of a crime are quite accurate at picking the “perpetrator” from a lineup (1. Many miscarriages of justice have occurred based on faulty eyewitness testimony 36. Which of the following statements is TRUE of police lineups? a. A sequential lineup increases the chance that the witness compares people in the lineup to each other b. A simultaneous lineup decreases the chance of falsely identifying an innocent person as the perpetrator c. A sequential lineup increases the chance that the witness will make a relative judgment about all the suspects they saw (1. A sequential lineup increases the chance that the witness compares each person in the lineup to their memory of what they saw at the event 37. Not all of the members of everyday categories have the same qualities. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack the feature of scales yet they are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the approach to categorization. a. Prototype b. Exemplar c. Definitional or feature d Family resemblance or heredity 38. E15" 9"!” is an average representation of a category A prototype An exemplar A unit A component 39. According to the typicality effect a. b. C. d. Objects in a category have a famiiy resemblance to one another Objects that are not typical stand out and so are more easily remembered Items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group We remember typical objects better than non-typical objects 40. Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus a. b. C. d. Disrupts the processing of another stimulus Acts as a cue to tell the participant when a response was correct Facilitates the response to another stimulus Relates to a prototype 41. Collins and Lofius modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticism of the original model. However, their revised model was not immune to criticism. One criticism of Collins and Lo f‘tus' semantic network theory is that it El. b. c. d. Cannot explain exceptions to category properties (e. g., account for the fact that an ostrich can’t fly while most birds can). Is of little explanatory value because it can explain just about any result Is so inflexible that it has been easy to falsify Explains the length of links as resulting from a person’s past experiences 42. Good scientific theories must have ail of the following properties EXCEPT a. b. c. d. Being too powerful to be refuted by empirical evidence Being able to predict the results of a particular experiment Being able to stimulate a great deal of research to test the theory Shown to be Wrong if a particular experimental result occurs 43. Learning in the connectionist network is represented by adjustments to network a. Weights b. Nodes 0. Hidden units (1. Output units 44. According to Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing model, information which is stored based on is remembered best. a. visual features b. sound information o. semantic information d. color association 45. McClelland and Rumelhart’s parallel processing model of memory has, as a central principle, the idea that a. Memory is represented as a pattern of connections which represent knowledge in a parallel form b. Memory is represented as a series of connections which are processed one after the other c. All knowledge representation is a final, unchanging product (1. All ofthe above 46. In a sentencewerifcation task, a participant sees sentences such as “A penguin is a bird,” or “A dog is an animal.” Generally, these sentences follow the form “An X is a Y.” The speed of a participant’s response to these sentences will be slower if a. Several associative links must be traversed to trace a path between the node for X and the node for Y b. The participants have recently seen the items names (e.g., penguin or dog) 0. The object named by X is atypical member of the category named by Y (1. There is a direct cormection between the nodes for X and the nodes for Y 47. Which of the following learning techniques is LEAST LIKELY to lead to deep processing of the information? a. Trevor is trying to understand how to use statistics by drawing associations between a set of data describing how adolescents respond to peer pressure and the theories he learned last semester in developmental psychology. b. .Maggie is trying to learn new vocabulary words, because she is taking SAT next month. Each day, she selects one Word. Throughout the day, she repeats the definition over and over to herself and generates sentences using it in her conversations that day. 0. Bree has just bought a new car and is trying to learn her new license plate sequence. Every morning for three weeks, she repeats the sequence outloud when she wakes up. d. For his history course, Bruce is trying to learn the order of the US. presidents by creating a silly sentence where each consecutive words starts with the same letter of the next president to be remembered. 48. When considering child witnesses what is true: a. They have trouble with the concept of time b. They have trouble with abstract terms c. A & B d. None of the above 49. False Memories: 3. Really never occur b. Afflict children only c. Can affect both children and adults d. Can affect both children and adults but generally children are more susceptible 50. in the film Memento the main character most likely suffers from some form of: a. Retrograde amnesia b. Antero grade amnesia c. Amygdala Function Problem d. DisseciatiVe Identity Disorder ...
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