exam3 - Psych 100 Winter, 2008 Gibbs Exam 3 1. Mental...

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Unformatted text preview: Psych 100 Winter, 2008 Gibbs Exam 3 1. Mental imagery involves $1.0???“ to Experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input Mental representations of the current sensory inputs Sensory representations of a stimulus All of these Shepard and Metzler’s “image rotation” experiment was extremely influential and important to the study ofcognition because it demonstrated a. b. e. d. DJ b. c. d How easy mental rotation is for humans That humans cannot successfully rotate mental images beyond 90 degrees That humans can only perform mental rotation on “real—world” objects That imagery and perception may share the same mechanisms Mental “images” can be representations of which senses? a. visual smel l taste all of the above 4. Mental scanning experiments found a. h. F" A positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image A negative linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image A constant scanning time for all locations on an image That imagery does not represent spatial relations in the same way that perceptual information does 5. Kosslyn interpreted the re3u1ts ot‘his research on imagery (such as the island experiment) as supporting the idea that the mechanism responsible for imagery involves Per-‘5'?” representations. Epiphenomenal Propositional Spatial Unilateral 6. Suppose we asked people to form simultaneous images of two or more animals such as a cat and a whale. Then, we asked them basic questions about the animals. For example, we might ask people if the cat has ears. Given our knowledge of imagery research, we could expect the FASTEST response to this question when the cat is imagined in the same mental image with a. A coyote b. Another cat 0. An elephant Cl. A grasshopper 7. Suppose we ask people to perform the following cognitive tasks. Which task is LEAST likely to strongly activate the visual cortex? a. Imagine the meaning of the word “ethics.” b. Imagine your car first from far away and then how it looks as you walk closer and closer to it. c. Imagine atypical unsharpened pencil. Approximate its length in inches. d. Imagine a tic-tac—toe game proceeding from start to finish. 8. Ganis and coworkers used MRI to measure brain activation for perception and imagery of objects. Their results showed that a. there is no difference between the activation caused by perception and by imagery 'o. perception and imagery activate the same areas near the back of the brain, but imagery activates more of the frontal lobe than does perception c. perception and imagery activate the same areas of the frontal lobe} but imagery activates more of the back of the brain than perception does (1. perception and imagery activate the same areas of the frontal lobe, but perception activates more of the back of the brain than imagery does. 9. A typical cognitive map of mine might include a. the location of Rite Aid on my route b. the location ofthe UCD. playing fields 0. the location of highway l 1.3 d. all of the above 10. We tend to regularize features in our cognitive maps. These regularizations include a right angle bias representing shapes as more symmetrical than they really are distorting mental images to be better aligned than they actually are all of the above P-P Fr?" 11. Which of the following statements is true of mental imagery? a. mental transformations of images are similar to actual transformations of physical objects b. spatial relations among the elements of a visual image are analogous to relations in actual space 0. neither of the above is true d. both of the above are true 12. The smallest meaningful unit in language is called a. Phoneme b. Morphem e 0. Letter d. Word 13. The form or structure of a language is called a. Pragmatics b. Semantics c. Syntax d. Phonics 14. My friend who is 4 uses simpler sentences when he talks to his 2-year-old brother than when he talks to me. He is showing his skill in a. Pragmatics b. Semantics c. Syntax d. Phonics 15. To prove that Watson was wrong when he said that we engage in “thinking” only by engaging in subvocal speech, Smith a. Went to sleep and then reported his dreams b. Paralyzed all his muscles with curate and then reported his thoughts c. Asked deaf people if they could think d. All of the above 16. According to Whort‘s linguistic relativity hypothesis a. All languages are similar and can be interchanged by multilingual individuals b. Language does not shape the way people perceive and organize their world Perception and experience shape the way people use language d. Languages does shape the way people perceive and organize their world. .0 l7. ln Rosch’s study that I talked about in class, she asked the Dani ofNew Guinea, who had only two basic color words, to remember colors. She found a. That they remember colors in much the same way as English speakers do b. That they remember focal or prototypical colors better than non- prototypical colors 0. That their memories are organized in a similar way to English-speakers” memories d. All ofthe above 18. In defining language, one necessary quality was arbitrariness of units. This means that a. Language is generated in the absence of external stimuli b. There is no meaningful connection between the sound of a word and its definition 0. We can produce an infinite number of arbitrary units d. Language contains discrete units 19. Which ofthe following is an assumption about language in general? a. The ability to use more than one language can be developed at any time during the life span although it is easier during the college years b. The ability to use more than one language appears to be universal among humans 0. Similar words across languages always share the same meaning d. Languages around the world are more different than they are similar 20. In a study, participants listened to the following tape recording: “Rumor had it that, for years. the governmen! braiding had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when hefomrd several.F spiders, roaches, and other bugs in {he comer office room.” As participants were hearing the word “bugs,” they completed a lexical decision task to a test stimulus flashed on a screen. Results showed that the participants responded MOST SLOWLY to the test stimulus: a. ANT b. SPY c. SKY d. All of these would have similar response times 21. Good readers a. Slow down when they encounter unfamiliar material b. Are fast readers c. Make good teachers (1. All of the above [Q L») 25‘ 27. r Which of the following cognitive factors are most important for reading skill? at Context b. Orthography c. Phonology d. They are all important . Consider the sentence, “Because he alwaysjogs a mile seems like a short distance to him.” The principle of late closure states that this sentence would first be parsed into which of the following phrases? a. “Because he always jogs” b. “Because he always jogs a mile” 0. “he always jogs” d “a mile seems” . In determining the meaning of a sentence, the garden-path model states that a. Semantics is used first, then syntax is called upon, if needed b. Syntax is used first, then semantics is called upon, if needed 0. Only syntax is used d. Only semantics is used There are certain qualities that are true of language and which discriminate it from other communication Systems. One of these is “displacement.” This is defined as a the connection between the sound of the word and its meaning is arbitrary b. languages contain discrete units — e.g., words 0. language can produce an infinite number of novel expressions d. language can be generated in the absence of any direct or controlling stimulus. . The number of phonemes used by the English language is approximately a. 8 b. 45 c. 150 d. Several thousand Sentences like “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” indicate that a. Not all sentences need to have a verb phrase b. It is possible for a sentence to have an irregular phrase structure c. The semantic content et‘a sentence governs its syntactic form d. A sentence can be grammatically correct even if it is meaningless 28. Which of these is NOT true of the principles of language? a. b. An infinite number of morphernes, words, and sentences can be created from only a few small units of language The various combinations of units within a language are governed by certain principles (e.g., “gst” is not a usual combination in the English language). If a combination of consonants is not allowed in one language (e.g., “t1” at the beginning of a word in the English language), then it is also not allowed in every other language In order to speak a language, people must know the principles that govern the phonological combinations, as well as the vocabulary and grammar. 29. The fact that languages across the world show the same pattern of regularities leads researchers to believe that a. b. C. d. The pattern of learning across cultures is similar Our vocal muscles determine our language development We have an innate biological heritage, stipulating the structure of human language The word order of subject—verb—object occurs in all languages 30. Cognitive psychologists are especially interested in studying language because a. b. C ct. Language gives us the means to describe our thoughts to someone Language offers us an observable behavior that gives us information on various fundamental cognitive processes Whorf' was right, language clearly determines thought None of the above 31. In class i asked you to cross out all ofthe letters “f” in a paragraph. Most people missed crossing out the “t” in F1057!” The first word on a line The second “f” in a word The “f’ in “of” The “i” in “for” 32. The result in Question # 28 can best be explained by the reader’s reliance on a. b. c. d. Phonological information Order information Context information Syntax information 33. Ill-defined problems are so named because it is difficult to specify clear 33'?” .o-n for the problems Analogies Initial states Goal states Schemas 34. 35. 36. Functional fixedness would be LOW EST for a(n) a. Novel object I). Familiar object c. Frequently used object (1. Object with a specific function Emily was at her friend’s house making lunch for several people. When she was ready to dish up the soup, she searched all the cupboards and drawers for a ladle but couldn’t find one. She decided to wait to serve the soup until her friend came home so that she could ask her where the ladle was. Her friend came home and when Emily asked about the ladle. her friend said that it had broken so now she uses a coffee mug t0 “spoon” soup into bowls. Emily was unable to solve the “dish up the soup” problem because of what sort of obstacle? a. Discriminability b. Perseveration c. Divergent thinking (1. Functional fixedness In Kaplan and Simon’s experiment, they presented different versions of the “mutilated checker board problem.” The main purpose of their experiment was to demonstrate that a. People arrive at the solution to an insight problem suddenly, but proceed more methodically towards the solution of a non-insight problem b. A person’s mental set can hinder finding a solution to a problem 0. People often have to backtrack within the problem space to arrive at an answer to a problem d. The way the problem is represented can influence the ease of problem solving . The “fortress problem” involves a fortress and marching soldiers, while the “radiation problem” involves a tumor and rays. Therefore, the two problems have very different a. Surface features b. Operators 0. Structural features (1. Mental sets . The textbook’s discussion of the research on in-vivo problem solving highlighted that play(s) an important role in solving scientific problems. a. Analogies b. Insight c. Flexibility d. Subgoals 39. Experts a. spend less time analyzing problems than do neviees. b. are better at reasoning in general than are novices c. are more likely to be open to new ways of looking at problems than are novices. (1. take a more effective approach to a problem than do novices 40. Convergent thinking a. Is open-ended b. Has a large number of potential solutions c. Has no correct answer d. Has a correct answer 4] . Sam works for a company that makes orange juice. Sales of their kiwiforange juice have been poor and the product was cancelled. The factory still had three cases of empty cartons and Sam was told he could take them if he wanted them. With the cartons, Sam made several birdfeeders for his backyard and built a “fort” for his 4-year-old son. Sam’s use of the cartons represents a. Convergent thinking b. Divergent thinking 0. Insight d. Hierarchical organization 42. Wagner concluded that sleep facilitates discovering the hidden structure needed to solve a problem. Your text suggests this might be due to a. Functional fixedness b. Means-end analysis 0. Think-aloud protocols d. Reactivation 43. A heuristic is also known as atan a. rule of thumb b. unreliable decision rule 0. easy way to make a decision d. scientific way to make a correct judgment 44. My friend, Teresa, has bought a Lotto ticket every week for the last 20 years. She includes all the same numbers each week and assures me that the odds are increasing in her favor since she has lost so many times. Teresa is a victim of a. the illusion of validity b. the recurrence of numbers 0. utility theory d. the gambler’s fallacy 45. A rule which is guaranteed to achieve a correct solution is called a. aheuristic b. a subgoal c. an algorithm (1. a backward search 46. You want to write The Great American Novel. Getting to this point requires that you solve a. an ill-defined problem b. a well-defined problem c. a convergent problem (1. a heuristic problem 47. HH. Goddard proposed a linear scale of intelligence which ranked people from “idiots” to “highly intelligent.” A linear scale such as this makes what supposition(s)‘? a. regardless of the individual situation, people have less or more of a single substance b. genetic causes of intellectual abilities are different than environmental causes 0. neurological damage can cause greater variation in intelligence than environmental disadvantages d. all of the above 48. Yerkes and Tennan wrote intelligence tests for the army during the early 19005. One of their findings was a. that prostitutes had surprisingly high IQ. scores b. that the average mental age of white, American adults was equivalent to 13-year-olds c. that conscientious objectors tested very low on I.Q. d. that southern and northern European immigrants had about equal l.Q.s 49. Intelligence is most generally defined as a. abilities in academic pursuits b. adaptability to one’s environment c. being good at rote learning d. succeeding in book learning 50. The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure is called a. validity b reliability 0. accuracy d all of the above ...
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exam3 - Psych 100 Winter, 2008 Gibbs Exam 3 1. Mental...

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