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BIO188_Outline_Oct26 - BIO 188 BIO Outline covers...

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BIO 188 October 26, 2009 Outline Outline covers everything in Chpt 7 you should know 1. we won’t cover it all in lecture Today: 2. fuels 3. metabolic states 4. production of ATP 5. glycolysis 6. citric acid cycle 7. e¯ transport chain (know what’s in lecture outline) How do we store fuels (glucose and fatty acids)? 8. Glucose stored (mostly in liver) as glycogen 1. string of glucose molecules 9. During starvation, cellular proteins used as energy sources 10. 80% of energy stores are … 1. Fat Why do we love fats? 11. Energy yield from a gram of fat is at least twice that of carbohydrate 1. concentrated , light-weight, energy source 2. Why are they light-weight? 12. When needed, triglycerides broken down into fatty acids and glycerol 1. in hungry cells fatty acids converted into compounds used glucose oxidation pathways 13. Excellent fuels for many cells, esp. muscle 14. Muscles can convert fatty acids and burn them very efficiently to generate ATP but … Muscles can convert fatty acids and burn them very efficiently to generate ATP but … 15. brain cannot use fatty acids as fuel! .. a major issue for regulation of metabolism ______________________________ METABOLIC STATES
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What happens to food after we eat it? 16. Mechanical and chemical digestion (( digestion (( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? of food along gastrointestinal) ( يوعملا tract into small component parts 1. complex sugars, fats, protein broken down to glucose, fatty acids (sorta) and amino acids for absorption absorption from digestive tract into bloodstream 17. During ~ first 4 hr following a meal, steady movement of glucose, amino acids, some fatty acids into bloodstream 1. absorptive state (( absorptive state (( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? What happens to this glucose during absorptive state? 18. More glucose in bloodstream than cells need 1. 1) Some used as fuel, esp. if active 2. 2) Couch potato: mostly anabolic pathways 1. some glucose stored as glycogen in liver 2. ..most unused glucose ... as fat (triglycer 1. sorry 19. Critical to store excess fuels, when available, for later use 1. natural selection for highly efficient means to store fat 2. storing fuel is what insulin does Most animals don’t eat continuously, so how are cells supplied w/ fuel when the gut is empty? 20. We rely on stored energy – glycogen and esp. fat 21. These storage molecules must be broken down to usable fuels 1. major change in overall metabolism What happens to metabolism when animals no longer have steady stream of fuels from digestive tract? 22. [Glucose] in blood tends to 1. danger that cells won’t have enough glucose, esp. critical for brain 23. Major shift to post-absorptive state post-absorptive state metabolic pathways prevents blood [glucose] from dropping too far 24. How?
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BIO188_Outline_Oct26 - BIO 188 BIO Outline covers...

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