Lect17LimbEvoDevoBiomSlides

Lect17LimbEvoDevoBiomSlides - Limb Development, Evolution,...

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1 Limb Development, Evolution, and Biomechanics Limb Development Mesoderm somite intermediate lateral plate Myotome Urogenital Sclerotome Dermatome Somatic layer Splanchnic layer LIMB
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2 Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA)
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3 Evolutionary Axis (preaxial - postaxial) ? Preaxial postaxial Development gives us the answer
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4 Evolution of and Adaptations to Walking Upright
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5 Humans and chimps share 98% of their DNA 5-7 mya Humans vs. Primates •UPRIGHT •BIG BRAINS
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6 Australopithecines, the earliest hominids upright apes Ardipithecus ramidus MOSAIC EVOLUTION : evolution of different characters of an adaptive suite within in a lineage at different rates, hence more as less independently of one another.
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7
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8 Reduced opposable big toe (hallux) Extant Bonobo chimpanzee walking bipedally
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9 Standing Ligament balances Center of Mass Oscillations
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10 More upright Larger Brain HOM O AUSTRALOPITHECINES
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11 ONTOGENY = The growth of an individual from zygote to adult.
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12 A B C D A B C D E F PAEDOMORPHOSIS : PERAMORPHOSIS : A B C D E ANCESTRAL ONTOGENY :
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13 TWO WAYS TO GROW: ALLOMETRY = change in shape with growth ISOMETRY= shape does not change with growth
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Lect17LimbEvoDevoBiomSlides - Limb Development, Evolution,...

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