6B_Chapter_13_GG

6B_Chapter_13_GG - Chapter 13 Mechanical Waves Types of...

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Chapter 13 Mechanical Waves
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Types of Waves • There are two main types of waves – Mechanical waves • Some physical medium is being disturbed • The wave is the propagation of a disturbance through a medium • Examples are ripples in water, sound – Electromagnetic waves • No medium required • Examples are light, radio waves, x-rays
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General Features of Waves • In wave motion, energy is transferred over a distance • Matter is not transferred over a distance – A disturbance is transferred through space without an accompanying transfer of matter • All waves carry energy – The amount of energy and the mechanism responsible for the transport of the energy differ
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Mechanical Wave Requirements • Some source of disturbance • A medium that can be “disturbed” • Some physical mechanism through which elements of the medium can influence each other – This requirement ensures that the disturbance will, in fact, propagate through the medium
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Sinusoidal Waves • The simplest wave • The shape of the wave is called sinusoidal since the waveform is that of a sine curve • The shape remains the same but moves – Toward the right in the text diagrams
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Terminology: Amplitude and Wavelength • The crest of the wave is the location of the maximum displacement of the element from its normal position – This distance is called the amplitude , A – The point at the negative amplitude is called the trough • The wavelength , λ , is the distance from one crest to the next
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Terminology: Wavelength and Period • More generally, the wavelength is the minimum distance between any two identical points on adjacent waves • The period , T , is the time interval required for two identical points of adjacent waves to pass by a point – The period of the wave is the same as the period of the simple harmonic oscillation of one element of the medium
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Terminology: Frequency • The frequency , ƒ, is the number of crests (or any point on the wave) that pass a given point in a unit time interval – The time interval is most commonly the second – The frequency of the wave is the same as the frequency of the simple harmonic motion of one element of the medium
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Terminology: Frequency, cont • The frequency and the period are related • When the time interval is the second, the units of frequency are s -1 = Hz – Hz is a hertz
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Traveling Wave • The brown curve represents a snapshot of the curve at t = 0 • The blue curve represents the wave at some later time, t
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Speed of Waves • Waves travel with a specific speed – The speed depends on the properties of the medium being disturbed • The wave function is given by – This is for a wave moving to the right – For a wave moving to the left, replace x vt with x + vt
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Wave Function, Another Form • Since speed is distance divided by time, v = λ / T • The wave function can then be expressed as • This form shows the periodic nature of y of y in both space and time
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Wave Equations • We can also define the angular wave number (or just wave number), k • The angular frequency can also be defined
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6B_Chapter_13_GG - Chapter 13 Mechanical Waves Types of...

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