Terms and Concepts for Midterm

Terms and Concepts for Midterm - Note Card Terms and...

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Note Card Terms and Concepts Week One : Factors leading to the rise of rhetoric in ancient Greece 1. Oral tradition- before the invention of writing, people remembered; rhetoric began as an oral art 2. Natural vs. Divine Causes- in a world where things happen at the hand of God, things can happen for no reason. A natural world is predictable. 3. Literacy- with the coming of a written language; Objectification of speech, can criticize 4. Polis- creation of a political structure where people could make decisions; with their legal system, they didn’t have lawyers, people defended themselves and needed to speak well, also wanted to sound professional 5. Emergence of democracy- rule by the average citizen Polis: the independent city-state that defined what it meant to be Greek Six social functions of rhetoric 1. ideas are tested 2. advocacy is assisted (persuasion) 3. power is distributed (citizens are getting involved) 4. facts are discovered 5. knowledge is shaped (shapes the way you view the world) 6. communities are built Week Two : The Sophists - In Athens, traveling teachers who marketed the art of speech. They taught how to use language effectively, live a good life, and manage affairs. Their teachings included absolute vs. relative truth, knowledge vs. opinion, certainty vs. probability, reality vs appearance, Protagorus (“Man is the measure of all things”)- he was one of he first Sophists. He had a question of whether virtue could be taught. He had the doctrines of Relativism and dissoi logoi - doctrine by Protagoras; it’s a 2 sided argument, everything is debated, everything has an opposite argument Relativism - the human decides what’s real and what’s not real. We all live in a reality of our own making. Nomos - norms, social agreements Gorgias (“Nothing exists…”)- he had The Encomium, and said that “Nothing exists, we can’t know it, if we knew it we couldn’t communicate it” Skepticism - recognizes the limitations of human knowledge. We are condemned to live our lives w/o knowing anything for sure Arete- excellence, virtue Kairos - sense of right moment; say something at the right time; must develop a sensitivity to the right moment To Prepon - be appropriate; the right/appropriate thing to say To Dynaton - power, force; what is possible; goal of discourse is to make something seem possible and probable
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Dialectic/dialectical method- this was a Sophist teaching. They taught their students to be able to teach on either side of the argument. This is b/c if you get hired to write a speech for someone in a trial, you have to be able to make an argument for either side The Encomium (Gorgias)- how to us rhetoric, skeptic; the power of speech to “enchant” the soul
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Terms and Concepts for Midterm - Note Card Terms and...

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