Exam 1 Notes


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PRINCIPLES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION I. Definition: all messages other than words that people exchange 1. messages: symbolic (stands for something else) intent = intentionally sent or interpreted as intentionally sent (behavior/communication) 2. other than words 3. people exchange: animals, intrapersonal II. Key Concepts 1. Packages or clusters 2. Role of culture When to perform How to perform What it means Which cues (cross cultural emotion) 3. Cuing or Stimulating – presence of money makes people act more selfishly, colors (bright)/mood 4. Context – formality 5. Relationship – closeness 6. Channel – touch (implies distance) III. Importance of nonverbal communication: 1. 60-65% of social meaning 2. primary means of expressing emotion, creating and managing impressions, and communicating messages of attraction and dominance (books also says distance and liking) 3. believable: when verbal/nonverbal contradict adults believe: 1) face, 2) voice, 3) words. Children believe words, and have trouble with sarcasm. 4. use of nonverbal behaviors (illustrators and emblems) while speaking improves comprehension 5. we naturally “think” with our hands – gesturing facilitates thinking 6. American Sign Language Relationships Between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication :Replace, Complement, Contradict, Repeat, Regulate, Accent NV Messages are essential I accomplishing the following: Creating first impressions and person perceptions Sending relational messages such as closeness, intimacy, and distance Expressing emotion Enabling people to send mixed or deceptive messages Sending messages of power and persuasion Nonverbal Codes Kinesics: messages sent by your body, thru gestures, posture, body movement, body lean… messages sent by your face like smiles, frowns, grimaces, and pouts Eyes: oculesics: eye contact, gaze aversion, pupil dilation and constriction Appearance and Adornment: hysical appearance; size, shape, color of your body, your accessories Vocalics (Voice): sounds of the voice & silences; how you say words rather than what you actually say; changes in speaking rate, volume, voice qualities and pitch, accents, pauses and hesitations Contact Codes – Proxemics (Space and Territory): how far apart people are while engaged in various activities Haptics (Touch): physical contact like grabbing, patting, hitting, hugging… Time (Chronemics) and Place (Environment)
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The immediacy principle predicts that people will approach individuals, situations, and objects they like and will avoid or move away from those they dislike Physiological/Biological Verbal and nonverbal messages are processed differently ( brain sidedeness ). Biological basis for some nonverbal behavior Cross cultural use of basic facial expressions -- fear, disgust, anger, sadness, happiness, and surprise Evolutionary value of these expressions (e.g., hand gestures such as: fist for anger, open palm for peace or greeting) Children blind from birth exhibit same expressions of smiling, laughing, crying, fear, and anger
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2010 for the course CAS 470 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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