This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Food Science: Lecture February 2, 2010 • Michael Pollan o Author, journalist, professor at UC Berkeley o Eat food. Don’t eat too much. Eat mostly plants o Wrote the book: Food Rules, book about what to eat. o Recently he did a talk show program with NY public radio—on youtube o Critical of nutritionist and food scientistis Key Nutrition Concepts from Unit 1 in Brown o Ten concepts in the book o 1. Food is a basic need of humans What does this mean to individual people? • A person who has food has many problems • A person who has no food has only one problem- simply they have no food and that’s all they can think about. Undernourishment (Hunger): the Condition where dietary energy consumption is continuously below the level required for maintaining a healthy life and engaging in light physical activity, most important part of this definition is a DEFIICIT If you look at trendline, for about 20 years there was a slight decrease in the total number of hungry people on the planet, around 2005 that number shot back up o 2. What is hunger like? Scientific work done on hunger: the Minnesota Experiement • They starved so that others be better fed • How would semi starvation affect people physiologically and psychologically? • What would be the best way to reefed severely malnourished people? • Who was in the experiment: 36 healthy young men (conscientious objectors) • Protocol for experiment o 3 mo: 3200 kcla o 6 mo: 1800 kcal o 3 mo: nutritional rehab • Experimental protocol o 2 meals a day Farina Toast Fried potatoes Jello Milk o Amounts adjusted so men would lose 2.5 lb/week o Required to walk 22 miles/week • Results of experiment o Sunken faces o Protruding ribs o Edema swollen legs o Anemia o Depression, anxiety o Extreme weakness o Dizziness 1 • • • “ I don’t know many other things in my life that I looked forward to being over with any more than this experiment. And it wasn’t so much.. bc of the physical discomfort, but bc it made food the most important thing in one’s life… food became the one central and only thing really in one’s life…” o Food Security “access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritious foods” –Brown Food insecurity in the US • USDA definition: inadequate or unsure access to enough food for active, healthy living” Nutrition Concept #2: Food provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other stuff o Energy: required to sustain body functions- respiration, circulation, metabolism, physical work, protein synthesis o 1 kcal = 1000 calores = 1 calorie o Energy nutrients Carbohydrates: 4Kcal/g Fat 9Kcal/g Protein 4 Kcal/g Alcohol 7 Kcal/g o Essential nutrients Required for normal growth and heatlh Cannot be produced by the body in sufficient amounts Must be present in the diet Examples: vitamin A, iron. Vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of blindness o Nonessential Nutrients Required for normal growth and health Can be synthesized by body cells from other dietary components Not required in the diet Examples: cholesterol, glycine, oleic acid Won’t be asked specific questions about essential nutrients on quizzes. Know the categories of the essential nutrients. 2 fatty acids that are essential: linoleic and alpha linolenic acid. How much do we need? o Dietary reference intakes Estimated average requiremenets Recommended dietary allowances Adequate intakes Tolerable upper levels of intake o Estimated average requirement Amount of intake of a given nutrient that meets the ned of half the pople in a healthy population. The mean requirement for a normally distributed population o Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) Level in intake of a given nutrient judged adequate to meet the known nutrient needs for practically all healthy persons while decreasing the risk of certain chronic diseases RDA = EAR + 2 standard deviations • RDA is a generous requirement, the probability of you being above the RDA is only 2.5%, 97.5% of people have requirements less than RDA How do you do calorie requirements: EER Estimated energy requirement • Why does EER decrease after age 19? 2 • o Because metabolism slows down, less active Iron as an example: • RDA for iron o Women aged 19-50 3 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 02/03/2010 for the course FDSC 1500 taught by Professor Gravani during the Spring '10 term at Cornell.
- Spring '10