Practical1Guide

Practical1Guide - Laboratory 1 Laboratory Safety and...

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Laboratory 1: Laboratory Safety and Techniques - Taking measurements o Length (meter) o Volume (liter) Graduated cylinder, beaker, Erlenmeyer flask Pipettes Graduated pipettes, micropipettes, plastic Pasteur pipettes, pipette pumps, glass Pasteur pipettes o Mass (gram) Triple beam balance Weighing boats o Temperature (degrees Celsius) Laboratory 2: Forensic Microscopy - The dissecting scope is also known as a stereoscope - The compound microscope can magnify 40x-1000x o Light level should be set between 4 and 6 o The ocular itself magnifies things 10x - Fibers observed include cotton, rayon, and wool - Mammalian red blood cells lack nuclei Laboratory 3: Evolution and Population Genetics - Genotype vs. phenotype - Population: a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same geographical are and are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. - Gene pool: the sum of all the alleles of all the members of the population - Evolution: changes in population alleles frequencies over time. o The population is the smallest unit that can evolve. o Evolution forces are violations of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions.
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- The Hardy Weinberg Law o Assumptions No mutation No gene flow Random mating Large population size No natural selection o p 2 +2pq+q 2 =1 p 2 = frequency of homozygous dominant individuals 2pq= frequency of heterozygous individuals q 2 = frequency of homozygous recessive individuals - Taste Test o Use of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Early tasters, late tasters, and non-tasters People homozygous for the recessive allele “t” are non-tasters o Use of sodium benzoate (BS) - Natural Selection o Favorable traits: genotype frequency increases o Unfavorable traits: genotype frequency decreases o Selection coefficient and fitness Fitness (W) Is equal to 1-S Selection of coefficient (S) 0= minimal elimination 1.0= maximal elimination o for lethal alleles, 100% selection against this allele
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- Negative eugenics o Voluntary selection against the harmful recessive allele Laboratory 4: Phylogenetic Trees - Linnean Classification System o Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species o
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