Practical2Guide - Bio Lab Practical II Study Guide Chapter...

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Bio Lab Practical II Study Guide Chapter 7: Fungal Diversity and Symbiosis • All fungi are chemoheterotrophs, requiring organic compounds for both energy and carbon sources • Complex life and reproduction cycles - sexual (spores, by meisos) - asexual (spores, by mitosis, budding) • Fungi play an important role in the process of decomposition (they are called saprophytes) • Some fungi are parasitic • Fungi are made up of thread-like individual filaments called hyphae (branching tubular structures) - Divided by septa - Organized to form the body of the fungus, called the mycelium o Vegetative vs. aerial mycelium • The cell walls of fungi are made of chitin Phylum Chytridiomycota - The oldest lineage of fungi - Mostly aquatic (freshwater or marine) - Flagellated gametes - Absorptive mode of nutrition - Few have a noticeable impact on humans o Some may cause potato wart - Many have coenocytic (multinucleated) hyphae • Phylum Zygomycota: Zygote Fungi - Common bread mold: Rhizopus stolonifer o Reproduces both sexually and asexually Asexual: formation of sporangia and haploid spores Sexual: recombination of compatible mating types into zygtoe that develops into zygospore Haploid spores are produced by meiosis - Cells of the hyphae are haploid - In asexual reproduction, certain hyphae grow upright and develop sporangia, round structures on their tips o Haploid spores develop in the sporangia following mitotic cell division - May cause opportunistic wound and respiratory infections - Pilobolus crystallinus: a coprophilous (dung-loving) fungus that is positively phototropic o Shoots sporangia • Phylum Basidiomycota: Club Fungi - Includes the fungi that cause the plant diseases wheat rust and corn smut as well as puffballs, shelf fungi, edible mushrooms, and non-edible toadstools - A mushroom is actually is actually a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp that grows upward from an underground mycelial mass and produces spores by meiosis
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o Spores are produced at the tips of small club-shaped structures called basidia • Phylum Ascomycota: Sac Fungi - Ascopore-producing fungi - Includes edible fungi, morels, and truffles, but also several deadly plant and animal parasites o Chestnut blight o Resemble mushrooms, but the cap is nonvoluted - Sexual reproduction produces either four or eight haploid ascospores after meiosis in a structure called an ascus o Asci form within a structure called an ascocarp Perithecium: a closed, spherical structure that develops a pore at the top for disperals of spores Apothecia: open, cup-shaped ascocarps - In asexual reproduction, spores called conidia are produced on the surface of special reproductive hyphate • Yeasts - Unicellular - Oval or spherical in shape - Asexual reproduction accomplished through the process of budding - Pseudohyphae - Facultative anaerobes • Molds - Reproduce primarily by means of asexual reproductive spores - Conidiospores are borne externally in chains on an aerial hypha called a
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Practical2Guide - Bio Lab Practical II Study Guide Chapter...

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