LecturesEXSC200midterm2

LecturesEXSC200midterm2 - Chapter 9 Energy Balance &...

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1 Chapter 9 Energy Balance & Body Weight Regulation Energy Balance
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2 Did you know… • Adipose tissue is the body’s largest energy depot • 1 lb stored body fat = 3,500 kcal A Closer Look at Adipose Tissue • Regulates energy balance through hormone production • Adipocytes ± • Hypertrophic growth ± Adipocyte increases • Hyperplastic growth ± Forming of new adipocytes
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3 A Closer Look at Adipose Tissue Hunger & Satiety • Hunger ± Basic physiological need for food •Sa t ie ty ± Physiological response to having eaten enough • Influences ± Neuropeptides ± ±
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4 Appetite • Desire for food ± Stimuli that override hunger & satiety ± More psychological than physiological ± Influences ± Appearance, taste, aroma, emotional states • Food craving Focus on Food: Food Cravings • Most commonly craved foods: ± Cookies, cakes, chips, chocolate • Hormonal changes • Occurs at specific times in day & to stressful situations • Possible causes ± Serotonin levels ± Neuropeptide Y & galanin
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5 What to do? • Don’t make foods “off limits” • Indulge cravings within reason • Adequate sleep • Regular exercise • Relaxation techniques • Eating healthy Energy Expenditure: Basal Metabolism, Physical Activity, & Thermic Effect of Food
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6 Basal Metabolism • Energy expended to sustain basic life functions ± Respiration, heart beat, nerve function, muscle tone • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) ± Amount of energy expended per hour ± Accounts for 50-70% TEE • Basal energy expenditure (BEE) ± BMR over 24-hours BMR • Measured in morning, fasting state, • Resting metabolic rate ± Often measured instead ± ~10% higher than BMR • Resting energy expenditure (REE) ± 24-hour period
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7 Harris-Benedict Equation Males • REE = 66.5 + (13.8 x wt in kg) + (5 x ht in cm) – (6.8 x age in years) Females • REE = 655.1 + (9.6 x wt in kg) + (1.8 x ht in cm) – (4.7 x age in years) REE Example
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8 Factors Influencing BMR •Age •Sex •G row th •Body we igh t • Body shape • Body composition • Body temperature •S t ress • Thyroid function •Ene rgy res t r
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9 Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) • Accounts for ~10% of TEE • Energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, & store nutrients following a meal • ~5-10% of total energy intake • Influenced by: ± Assessing Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) • Direct calorimetry • Indirect calorimetry •Use o f s tab le isotopes: Doubly labeled water • Mathematical formulas
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10 Defining Overweight & Obesity •Overwe ight ± Excess weight for a given height •Obes ity ± Abundance of body fat • Body weight
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2010 for the course EXSC 200L at USC.

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LecturesEXSC200midterm2 - Chapter 9 Energy Balance &...

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