LecturesEXSC200short Midterm2

LecturesEXSC200short Midterm2 - Chapter 9 Energy Balance...

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1 Chapter 9 Energy Balance & Body Weight Regulation Energy Balance Did you know… • Adipose tissue is the body’s largest energy depot • 1 lb stored body fat = 3,500 kcal
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2 A Closer Look at Adipose Tissue • Regulates energy balance through hormone production •Ad ipocytes ± • Hypertrophic growth ± Adipocyte increases • Hyperplastic growth ± Forming of new adipocytes A Closer Look at Adipose Tissue • Hunger ± Basic physiological need for food •Sa t ie ty ± Physiological response to having eaten enough •In f luences ± Neuropeptides
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3 Appetite • Desire for food ± Stimuli that override hunger & satiety ± More psychological than physiological ± Influences ± Appearance, taste, aroma, emotional states •Foodcrav ing Focus on Food: Food Cravings • Most commonly craved foods: ± Cookies, cakes, chips, chocolate •Hormona lchanges stressful situations • Possible causes ± Serotonin levels ± What to do? • Don’t make foods “off limits” • Indulge cravings within reason • Adequate sleep • Regular exercise
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4 Energy Expenditure: Basal Metabolism, Physical Activity, & Thermic Effect of Food Basal Metabolism • Energy expended to sustain basic life functions ± Respiration, heart beat, nerve function, muscle tone • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) ± Amount of energy expended per hour ± Accounts for 50-70% TEE • Basal energy expenditure (BEE) ± BMR over 24-hours BMR • Measured in morning, fasting state, • Resting metabolic rate ± Often measured instead ± ~10% higher than BMR • Resting energy expenditure (REE) ± 24-hour period
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5 Harris-Benedict Equation Males • REE = 66.5 + (13.8 x wt in kg) + (5 x ht in cm) – (6.8 x age in years) Females • REE = 655.1 + (9.6 x wt in kg) + (1.8 x ht in cm) – (4.7 x age in years) REE Example Factors Influencing BMR •Age •Sex •G row th •Body we igh t • Body shape • Body composition • Body temperature
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6 Physical Activity • Accounts for 15-30% of TEE • Factors affecting amount of energy needed: ± ± Body size Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) • Accounts for ~10% of TEE • Energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, & store nutrients following a meal • ~5-10% of total energy intake •In f luencedby: ± Assessing Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) • Direct calorimetry • Indirect calorimetry • Use of stable isotopes: Doubly labeled water • Mathematical formulas ± DRIs ±
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7 Body Composition ± Overweight ± Excess weight for a given height ± Obesity ± Abundance of body fat ± Body weight ± Indirect measure of obesity
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LecturesEXSC200short Midterm2 - Chapter 9 Energy Balance...

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