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EPS 50 study guide

EPS 50 study guide - -Normal=dipslip tension causing rocks...

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- Normal =dipslip: tension causing rocks above fault plane move down relative to rocks below fault plane and structure is extended horizontally. Reverse: compression causing rocks above fault plane move upward in relation to rocks below=shortening of structure. Strike slip= right lateral or left lateral. – Anticline= layered rocks that fold up into arches & the two sides of a fold are its limbs. Syncline= rocks that fold downwards into troughs; tilted beds in the field would have symmetric,asymmetric, or overturned folds. Look at the axial plane and fold axis. – Radioactive isotopes decay at a half life=daughter isotopes. You can measure the amount of daughter isotopes using its half life and determine the time required to produce the measured amount of daughter. – The half life of radioactive K is much longer than radioactive C and the event in an igneous rock that you can date using it is before its heating-recrystallization process after its formation.- Cross cutting relationships can date geologic materials by observing dikes, sills, and faults that have displaced these forms. Deformation/intrusive events took place before sedimentary layers=are younger than the rocks they cut. core is the source of magnetic field because of convective motions in outer core that mix electrically conducting iron fluid=geodynamo. Giant magnet inner core is reenergized by this convection. – Transform fault vs. fracture zone – strike slip activity and lithospheric plates move opposite of each other vs. extension past transform faults away from ridge axis seismically inactive. Spreading centers are offset by a transform fault few meters to several km in length. –P primary wave= compressional, push and pull particles. S secondary wave=shear, displace particles at right angles to path of travel. Love wave= surface waves cause horizontal shifting of earth. Rayleigh waves= slowest, particles travel in orbitals or ellipses in the direction of propagation. – Outer core waves are only P waves, and inner core waves are P+S waves. – PKP= path of a compressional wave through the outer core. PKIP= the refracted waves that went through the inner core. PKiP= compressional wave which was reflected from the top side of the inner/outer core boundary. PP wave= compressional wave reflected once at Earths surface. PKJKP= seismic phase that enters the inner core as a shear wave= inner core is solid. SKS= wave that turns into a compressional wave upon
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