t10 - Geography 231 Introduction to Geospatial Methods...

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1 Geography 231 Introduction to Geospatial Methods Topic 10: Descriptive Statistics I –Non Spatial Descriptive Statistics Goals To define statistics and introduce its role in To define statistics and introduce its role in geospatial methods Go over some basic statistical terms and concepts Data, primary and secondary sources of data, levels of measurement, precision and false precision, samples and populations spatially explicit and implicit histograms and populations, spatially explicit and implicit, histograms and scatterplots Understand basic descriptive statistics for central tendency and dispersion
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2 Statistics: Do Not Be Afraid! Statistics [stuh-tis-tiks] - the collection, classification, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data Imposes order and regularity on aggregates of more or less disparate elements Used in aspects of every day life Measuring individual size & dimensions Sporting performances Business market analysis/financial decisions Weather Science The Four Main Functions of Statistics 1. Description (Descriptive Statistics) 1. Description (Descriptive Statistics) Used to summarize large data sets Particularly important with the sheer amount of quantitative information that is commonly available 2. Inference (Inferential Statistics) Using statistics about a sample to make inferences about a larger population Requires that the sample be representative of the population
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3 The Four Main Functions of Statistics, Cont… 3. Significance Deciding whether or not an observed difference between two data sets is significant Used widely in hypothesis testing and the scientific method 4. Prediction Predictions forward and backward through time, under different circumstances, etc Relies on processes being deterministic: identical results under identical conditions, which is not altogether realistic Basic Statistical Terms and Concepts Data: a collection of numerical observations, often presented in tabular format called a data matrix Each column typically represents a variable (values that can vary between observations) Country Population (millions) Area (x1000 km 2 ) Inflation Rate (%) Chile 14.0 757 18.5 Iran 62.5 1648 23.4 Madagascar 13.1 587 15.8 Thailand 58.0 513 5.0 United States 260.6 9364 3.3
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4 Data, Cont… Primary data sources are collected directly from the original source Acquired “in the field”; normally very expensive and time- consuming to acquire Secondary data sources are acquired from remote or archival information Remote sensing, government agencies, etc Often need to be verified or “ground truthed” with primary data Types of Numbers Integers: whole number with no fractional or decimal component 1, 47, -547 Real Numbers: any number with a fractional or decimal component 28 54 -0 0001 34½ 28.54, 0.0001, 34½
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t10 - Geography 231 Introduction to Geospatial Methods...

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