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Chapter-2---Model-Based-Systems-Engineering_2008_Practical-Guide-to-SysML.pdf

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Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) applies systems modeling as part of thesystems engineering process described in Chapter 1 to support analysis, speci-fication, design, and verification of the system being developed. A primary arti-fact of MBSE is a coherent model of the system being developed. This approachenhances communications, specification and design precision, design integration,and reuse of system specification and design artifacts.This chapter summarizes MBSE concepts to provide further context for SysMLwithout emphasizing the specific modeling language, method, or tools. MBSE iscontrasted with the more traditional document-based approach to motivate theuse of MBSE and highlight its benefits. Principles for effective modeling are alsodiscussed.2.1Contrasting the Document-Basedand Model-Based ApproachThe following sections contrast the document-based approach and the model-based approach to systems engineering.2.1.1Document-Based Systems Engineering ApproachTraditionally, large projects have employed adocument-based systems engi-neeringapproach. This approach is characterized by the generation of textualspecifications and design documents, in hard-copy or electronic file format, thatare then exchanged between customers, users, developers, and testers. Systemrequirements and design information are expressed in these documents and draw-ings. The systems engineering emphasis is placed on controlling the documenta-tion and ensuring the documents and drawings are valid, complete, and consistent,and that the developed system complies with the documentation.In the document-based approach, specifications for a particular system, itssubsystems, and its hardware and software components are usually depicted in aModel-Based SystemsEngineering2CHAPTER
16CHAPTER 2Model-Based Systems Engineeringhierarchical tree, called aspecification tree.A systems engineering managementplan (SEMP) documents how the systems engineering process is employed on theproject, and how the engineering disciplines work together to develop the docu-mentation needed to satisfy the requirements in the specification tree. Systemsengineering activities are planned by estimating the time and effort required togenerate documentation, and progress is then measured by the state of comple-tion of the documents.Document-based systems engineering typically relies on a concept of operationdocument to define how the system is used to support the required mission orobjective. Functional analysis is performed to allocate the top-level system func-tions to the components of the system. Drawing tools are used to capture thesystem design, such as the functional flow diagrams or schematic block diagrams.These diagrams are stored as separate files and included in the system design docu-mentation. Engineering trade studies and analyses are performed and documentedby many different disciplines to evaluate and optimize alternative designs and allo-

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