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EASC150_finalstudyguidefilledout - 1 1947 Constitution of...

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1. 1947 Constitution of Japan Japan surrendered in 1945 Allies occupied Japan with U.S. army Political democratization-demilitarization and destruction of social, political and economic conditions that had made Japan an aggressor nation Wanted to turn Japan into a peaceful nation Guided by General Douglas MacArthur (SCAP-Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers) Constitution o Stripped emperor of powers granted under Meiji constitution – became a symbol of the nation and restricted to ceremonial duties o Created British-style parliamentary system – National Diet (House of Representatives and House of Councilors) o Supreme Court (judiciary) developed to oversee all courts and make final decision on constitutionality of laws o Electorate expanded (all men and women of age 20 or above) o Improved civil and political rights o Women’s rights increased o Article 9-renounced war and use of force to settle international disputes- pledged to not maintain land, sea or air forces (no military) o Drafted by Americans, confirmed by Japanese 2. U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and the fight over its revision Result of Article 9 in 1947 Constitution of Japan Argued that Japan would not have effective means to provide self-defense and irresponsible militarism was still widespread U.S. put military bases in Japan to help protect them from external sources as well as internal sources Gave U.S. exclusive use of defense privileges Agreement to expire when both governments believe that alternative UN, individual or collective arrangements assure peace in the area 3. General Douglas MacArthur Commander in WWI Right-wing political views Appointed Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific Area Named Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (SCAP) Received formal surrender Truman appointed him as head of Allied occupation in Japan Successfully encouraged: o Democratic institutions o Religious freedom o Civil liberties
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o Land reform o Emancipation of women o Formation of trade unions Appointed commander of UN forces at outbreak of Korean War in 1950 Launched a counterattack on North Koreans Removed from command after disagreeing with Truman’s commands to keep war to Korea – publicly stated desires to take war to China with nuclear bombs 4. The triangular relationship between the U.S., China and Taiwan Sources: Ogden, Taiwan handout, “Tug of War: The Story of Taiwan” PRC and ROC both claimed to be legitimate govt. of Chinese people U.S. continued to maintain economic and cultural ties with Taiwan and continued to sell military equipment to them 1979 – U.S. ends diplomatic relations with Taiwan Since 1988, ties between Taiwan and China have grown closer while ties with America diminished Taiwan’s entrepreneurs became one of largest groups of investors in China’s
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