Exp10

Exp10 - Experiment 10 EXPERIMENTING WITH GAS LAWS I...

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Experiment 10 EXPERIMENTING WITH GAS LAWS I. Learning Objectives… To introduce the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a confined gas. ( Boyle's Law ) To investigate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a confined gas. ( Gay-Lussac's Law ) To investigate direct and inverse relationships using graphical analysis. II. Background Information A gas is defined as the state of matter in which widely separated molecules move in a random and chaotic fashion in a volume defined by the size of the container. Four quantities are used to describe gases: pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity (moles). The ideal gas law describes the relationship between these properties with an equation. PV = nRT where: P = pressure (atm) V = volume (L) n = mole T = temperature (K) R = gas constant (0.0821 L atm/K mol) Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure (273.15 K, 1.0 atm pressure), 1 mole of gas occupies 22.414 L for an ideal gas . Substituting these values into the ideal gas equation above, the gas constant (R) is 0.08206 L atm/K mol. Experimentally, a value of R can be determined for a gas by carefully measuring P, V, n, and T for a given sample of gas and using the ideal gas equation to solve for R. The objective of this experiment is to introduce two relationships that illustrate the interrelated properties of gases. First, the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas is investigated. Historically, this relationship was first established by Robert Boyle in 1662 and has since been known as Boyle’s Law . The gas used in this experiment is air (actually a mixture of gases), which has a molar mass of 28.96 g/mol and

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10-2 a density of 0.001185 g/mL at room temperature (25 o C, 273K). In this experiment air is first confined in a syringe connected to a pressure sensor. Then, the volume of the syringe is adjusted in 1 mL increments as the relative pressure exerted by the confined gas is measured at each volume. The pressure change is monitored using the pressure sensor connected via the interface to a computer. It is assumed that temperature remains constant throughout the experiment. Pressure and volume data is collected and plotted to determine what mathematical relationship exists between the pressure and volume of a confined gas. The second part of the experiment is to verify Gay-Lussac’s Law . In the early 1800’s, Joseph Gay-Lussac published his work describing the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its temperature. Gas molecules are in constant motion and exert pressure via collisions with the walls of their container. The velocity and the number of collisions for these molecules are affected when the temperature of the gas increases or decreases. In this experiment, the pressure and temperature of an air sample in an Erlenmeyer flask are monitored with a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor. The volume of the gas sample and the number of molecules it contains are kept constant as the temperature is varied. Subsequent data analysis illustrates the mathematical relationship existing between the
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Exp10 - Experiment 10 EXPERIMENTING WITH GAS LAWS I...

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