notes_Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4...

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Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The pH Scale 7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the pH of weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7 Polyprotic Acids 7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.11 Strategy for solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary From Chapter 4: Acids and Bases An Acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) ions when dissolved in water, and is a proton donor A Base is a substance that produces OH - ions when dissolved in water: Example: NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) The OH - ions react with the H + ions (if an acid is present) to produce water, H 2 O, and are therefore proton acceptors . Acids and Bases are electrolytes. Their strength is categorized in terms of their degree of dissociation in water to make hydronium or hydroxide ions. Strong acids and bases dissociate completely , and are strong electrolytes. Weak acids dissociate partially (some small % of the molecules dissociate) and are weak electrolytes. Selected Acids and Bases Acids Bases Strong: H + (aq) + A - (aq) Strong: M + (aq) + OH - (aq) Hydrochloric, HCl Sodium hydroxide, NaOH Hydrobromic, HBr Potassium hydroxide, KOH Hydroiodoic, HI Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 Nitric acid, HNO 3 Strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2 Perchloric acid, HClO 4 Weak Weak Hydrofluoric, HF Ammonia, NH 3 Phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 accepts proton from water to make Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH NH 4 + (aq) and OH - (aq) (or HC 2 H 3 O 2 )
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Arrhenius (or Classical) Acid-Base Definition An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and dissociates in water to yield a hydronium ion : H 3 O + A base is a substance that contains the hydroxyl group and dissociates in water to yield : OH - Neutralization is the reaction of an H + (H 3 O + ) ion from the acid and the OH - ion from the base to form water, H 2 O. The neutralization reaction is exothermic and releases approximately 56 kJ per mole as written: H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O (l) + 56 kJ / mol Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition An acid is a proton donor , any species that donates an H + ion. An acid must contain H in its formula; HNO 3 and H 2 PO 4 - are two examples, all Arrhenius acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids. A base is a proton acceptor , any species that accepts an H + ion. A base must like to bind the H + ion; a few examples are NH 3 , CO 3 2- , F - , as well as OH - . Brønsted-Lowry bases are not Arrhenius bases, but all Arrhenius bases produce the Brønsted-Lowry base OH - . Therefore in the Brønsted-Lowry perspective, one species donates a proton and another species accepts it: an acid-base reaction is a proton transfer process. Acids donate a proton to water Bases accept a proton from water Strong Acids and the Molarity of H + Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Acids Problem: In aqueous solutions, each molecule of sulfuric acid will loose two protons to yield two H + ions, and one sulfate ion.
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notes_Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4...

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