notes_Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (MOLARITY!) 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
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Solutes The thing being dissolved, mixed, diluted! Solvents The material doing the dissolving, mixing, dilution! Solution The final material of the dissolution, mixing and dilution! Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions
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Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Solutes Coffee grounds. Solvents Water Solution Morning coffee
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Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule.
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Figure 4.2: Polar water molecules interact with the positive and negative ions of a salt, assisting with the dissolving process.
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The Role of Water as a Solvent: The solubility of Ionic Compounds Electrical conductivity The flow of electrical current in a solution is a measure of the solubility of ionic compounds or a measurement of the presence of ions in solution. When Sodium Chloride dissolves into water the ions become solvated , and are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are “ aqueous ” and are free to move throughout the solution, and are conducting electricity, or helping electrons to move through out the solution NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Electrolyte A substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water. Soluble ionic compound dissociate completely and may conduct a large current, and are called Strong Electrolytes.
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Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
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Produce ions in aqueous solution and conduct electricity well. Strong electrolytes are soluble salts, strong acids and strong bases . Strong acids produce H + ions when they dissolve in water. HCl, … , HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 are strong acids: HNO 3 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) NaOH and KOH are strong bases: NaOH( s ) Na + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Strong Electrolytes ALL OF THE ABOVE SPECIES ARE IONIZED NEARLY 100%
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Figure 4.5: HCL (aq) is completely ionized.
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Figure 4.6: An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. (NaOH)
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Produce relatively few ions in aqueous solution The most common weak electrolytes are weak acids and weak bases. Acetic acid is a typical weak acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) Ammonia is a common weak base: NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Both of these species are ionized only ~1% Weak Electrolytes
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Figure 4.7: Acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) exists in water mostly as undissociated molecules.
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Figure 4.8: The reaction of NH 3 in water.
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Because of hydrogen bond formation, water boils at a much higher temperature than CH 4 (90 K), which has a comparable molecular mass.
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Dissolve in water but produce no ions in solution.
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notes_Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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