Memory1bjw - PSC100
–
Memory
I
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Unformatted text preview: PSC100
–
Memory
I
 Today’s
Lecture
 •  Memory
–
The
Basics
 –  Encoding

Storage

Retrieval
 –  Short‐term
memory,
Long‐term
memory
 •  A
couple
of
extreme
cases
 •  Sensory
or
“iconic”
memory
 –  Whole
report,
parJal
report
 But
first…
 Some
clarificaJon
 Object‐Based
Neglect
 Draw Black Region Draw White Region Marshall & Halligan, 1993 “Higher
visual
areas”?
 •  The
visual
system
is
 complicated
 •  Massive
network
of
 connecJons
between
 processing
areas
 •  Different
areas
can
be
 thought
of
modules
 that
process
a
parJcular
 aspect
of
visual
scene
 •  AWenJon
tends
to
have
 more
of
an
effect
in
 higher
visual
areas
 Today’s
Lecture
 •  Memory
–
The
Basics
 –  Encoding

Storage

Retrieval
 –  Long‐term
memory,
Short‐term
memory
 •  A
couple
of
extreme
cases
 •  Sensory
or
“iconic”
memory
 –  Whole
report,
parJal
report
 Demo:
Remember
these
words
 Which
words
were
most
well‐ remembered?
 •  •  •  •  Primacy?
 Recency?
 Oddball?
 Concrete/abstract?
 Standard
Memory
Structures
 •  Long‐term
memory
 –  Explicit
memory:
SemanJc
&
episodic
 –  Implicit
memory:
Priming
&
procedural
knowledge
 •  Working
memory
 –  Also
called
“short‐term
memory”
 –  ExecuJve
system
+
modality‐specific
storage
systems
 •  Sensory
memory
 –  Iconic
memory
 –  Echoic
memory
 Long‐term
memory
 •  Long‐term
memory
involves
the
storage
and
 recall
of
informaJon
over
a
long
period
of
 Jme
(as
days,
weeks,
or
years)
 Video
–
“Photographic”
memory?
 3
main
phases
of
long‐term
memory
 1)  Encoding

–
The
iniJal
 creaJon
of
a
memory;
 processing
of
 informaJon
(e.g.
visual
 info,
semanJc
info)
for
 later
retrieval
 ‐
Called
“acquisiJon”
in
the
 textbook
 3
main
phases
of
long‐term
memory
 2)
Storage
–
The
process
of
 maintaining
a
memory
 for
later
retrieval
 
‐
This
is
usually
a
passive
 process
 
‐
However,
memories
 are
strengthened
 through
repeated
recall

 3
main
phases
of
long‐term
memory
 3)
Retrieval
–
The
 recollecJon
of
an
event
 or
bit
of
informaJon

 
‐
Oden
easier
when
 some
kind
of
cue
or
 prompt
is
given
 
 
‐
Generally
easier
to
 recognize
than
to
recall
 v. Working
memory





Short‐term
 IS memory
 •  Working
memory
is
a
system
for
temporarily
storing
and
 managing
the
informaJon
required
to
carry
out
complex
 cogniJve
tasks
such
as
learning,
reasoning,
and
 comprehension.
Working
memory
is
involved
in
the
 selecJon,
iniJaJon,
and
terminaJon
of
informaJon‐ processing
funcJons
such
as
encoding,
storing,
and
 retrieving
data.
 •  Short‐term
memory:
A
system
for
temporarily
storing
and
 managing
informaJon
required
to
carry
out
complex
 cogniJve
tasks
such
as
learning,
reasoning,
and
 comprehension.
Short‐term
memory
is
involved
in
the
 selecJon,
iniJaJon,
and
terminaJon
of
informaJon‐ processing
funcJons
such
as
encoding,
storing,
and
 retrieving
data.
 Working
memory
 •  Working
memory
consists
of
the
informaJon
 that
is
currently
being
considered
 •  Here,
informaJon
can
be
manipulated
 –  e.g.
Put
into
context
 –  e.g.
Changed
/altered
 –  e.g.
Rehearsed
 •  This
typically
is
on
the
order
of
20‐30
seconds
 Extreme
Amnesia
–
Stuck
in
working
memory?
 Explicit
Memory
Tasks
 •  Recall
 –  Free
recall
–
No
cue,
prompt
 –  Cued
recall
–
With
help
from
a
cue
 –  Serial
recall
–
Recall
of
an
ordered
series
 –  Real‐world
examples?
 •  RecogniJon
 –  Real‐world
examples?
 A
typical
explicit
memory
task
 Remember these words: •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Sour
 Candy
 Sugar
 Aggie
 BiWer
 Good
 Taste
 Tooth
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Nice
 Honey
 Soda
 Chocolate
 Heart
 Cake
 Tart
 Pie
 From Roediger & McDermott (1995) Cued
recall
example
 Were these words in the list? •  •  •  •  •  Sour
 Soda
 Music
 Aggie
 Sweet
 •  •  •  •  •  Yes
(first
word
‐‐
primacy
effect)
 Yes
(middle
of
list,
hard
to
remember)
 No
(irrelevant
“lure”)
 Yes
(Von
Restorff
effect)
 No
(associated
word
‐‐
false
memory)
 Implicit
Memory
Tasks
 •  It’s
not
obvious
to
the
subject
that
memory
is
being
 tested
 –  Memory
plays
an
implicit
role
in
the
task
 •  Priming
 –  Speeded‐response
tasks
 –  PercepJon
without
awareness
(subliminal
percepJon)
 –  Word‐stem
compleJon
 •  Procedural
knowledge
 –  Skills
for
which
it
is
difficult
to
describe
exactly
what
it
is
 that
you
know
 –  Riding
a
bicycle,
Mirror
drawing
 Subliminal
PercepJon
 •  Subliminal
=
below
limen
(threshold/cutoff)
 •  Example:
Kunst‐Wilson
&
Zajonc
(1980)
 Exposure Phase Test Phase Old Chance 1 ms Duration Unlimited Duration Which did you see before? Which do you like better? New See Before? Like Better? 
Iconic
Memory
 •  Prior
to
1960,
many
scienJsts
noted
that
visual
 informaJon
seems
to
persist
for
a
few
hundred
 milliseconds
ader
the
offset
of
a
sJmulus
 –  This
was
based
on
introspecJon,
with
no
data
 •  Example:
Camera
flash
in
a
dark
room
 •  The
“iconic
image”
seems
like
a
photographic
image
 that
fades
rapidly
 –  The
icon
fades
so
quickly
that
it
is
gone
before
the
subject
 can
report
everything
in
the
memory
 
Iconic
Memory:
Sperling
(1960)
 •  In
1960,
George
Sperling
developed
a
 procedure
for
measuring
the
contents
of
 iconic
memory
before
the
icon
faded
 •  Whole
report‐
 –  TradiJonal
procedure
in
which
icon
fades
 before
we
can
fully
report
what
it
looks
like
 •  ParJal
report‐
 –  Sperling’s
innovaJon
that
makes
it
possible
 to
more
directly
measure
what
the
icon
 looks
like
 

Whole
Report
 •  Whole
Report:
You
will
briefly
see
a
set
of
leWers
 and
numbers;
try
to
remember
as
many
as
you
can
 71VF XL53 B4W7 Subjects can typically remember about 5 of the letters and numbers 

Whole
Report
 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 Subjects transfer randomly-selected items into short-term memory until short-term memory is full 
Whole
Report
 •  In
the
whole‐report
condiJon,
subjects
can
remember
 about
5
of
the
leWers
and
numbers
 •  In
this
condiJon,
subjects
must
remember
the
leWers
 and
numbers
long
enough
to
report
them
 –  This
requires
several
seconds
 •  Thus,
the
whole‐report
condiJon
taps
a
memory
 system
that
lasts
for
at
least
several
seconds
and
can
 hold
a
small
number
of
items
 –  This
system
is
called
the
“short‐term
memory
system”
or
the
 “working
memory
system”
 •  This
condiJon
does
not
tell
us
about
iconic
memory
 
ParJal
Report
 •  ParJal
Report:
High
beep
=
top
row;
medium
beep
=
 middle
row;
low
beep
=
boWom
row
 82RN V9K7 CW3Q Subjects can typically remember most or all of the items from the cued row 

ParJal
Report
 memory Short-term 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 Subjects transfer the items from the cued row 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 71VF XL53 B4W7 Cue is too late -- cued row has vanished 
ParJal
Report
 •  When
the
cue
is
presented
shortly
ader
the
array
of
 leWers
and
numbers,
the
subjects
transfer
informaJon
 about
the
cued
row
from
the
iconic
image
into
short‐ term
memory,
and
then
report
it
 –  Because
each
row
contains
only
4
items
and
subjects
must
 store
only
1
row,
performance
is
not
limited
by
the
fact
that
 only
5
items
can
be
stored
in
short‐term
memory
 •  If
subjects
can
report
90%
of
the
leWers
in
the
cued
row,
 they
presumably
had
a
memory
of
90%
of
the
enJre
 array
at
the
Jme
of
the
cue
 •  If
the
cue
is
too
late,
they
store
randomly‐selected
items
 rather
than
storing
only
the
items
in
the
cued
row
 
Sperling’s
Results
 Brief Delay Data 12 10 Partial Report Equivalent 8 Number of Letters 6 Reported Whole Report 4 2 = % Correct × Total Set Size for partial report 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of Items in Stimulus Array Sperling’s
Results
 12 Partial Report at Various Delays 10 Equivalent 8 Number of Letters 6 Reported 4 2 = % Correct × Total Set Size -100 0 150 300 1000 Delay Between Array and Tone 
Sperling’s
Conclusions
 •  Sensory
memory
(iconic
memory)
exists
 •  Sensory
memory
has
much
larger
storage
capacity
 than
short‐term
(working)
memory
 •  Sensory
memory
decays
rapidly
 –  Fades
by
50%
within
approximately
150
ms
 –  Almost
enJrely
gone
within
500
ms
 Decay
in
Mild
CogniJve
Impairment
 d’ is a measure of accuracy Healthy young adults Healthy older adults Older adults with mild cognitive impairment Lu et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1797-1802 ...
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