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Memory2bjw - PSC100
–
Memory
II
...

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PSC100 – Memory II
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Short‐Term vs Long‐Term Memory For over 100 years, psychologists have [email protected] between 2 types of memory Short‐term memory (STM; primary memory) is the [email protected] that is currently [email protected] Usually called “working memory” nowadays Small storage capacity Rapid decay in the absence of rehearsal Long‐term memory (LTM; secondary memory) is the [email protected] that is available but not currently [email protected] Very large storage capacity LiOle or no decay ‐‐ failures of retrieval are primarily due to interference
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Computer Analogy STM is like a computer’s internal memory (RAM) Amount of memory is highly limited Extremely fast, direct access Useful for performing [email protected] 6 + 2 + 7 = 15 LTM is like external storage (hard drive, flash drives) Amount of memory is very large Slow access via internal memory Useful for retaining [email protected] not currently in use
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Neuropsychological Evidence “Neuropsychology” is the study of the effects of brain damage on psychological processes Neuropsychological studies have shown that STM and LTM can be dissociated STM deficits without LTM deficits LTM deficits without STM deficits
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STM has limited capacity STM capacity typically measured by “digit span” tasks
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Limited Capacity of STM Normal digit span is around 7 items Miller (1956): “The Magical Number 7± 2” STM capacity has been regarded as a good measure of intelligence for over a century 19th‐Century journal [email protected] @tles: “Primary Memory in Idiots” “Memory Span in the Feeble‐Minded” Kyllonen & Christal (1990): “Reasoning Ability Is (LiOle More Than) Working‐Memory Capacity” Examined data from 2144 army recruits and found high [email protected] between reasoning ability and STM capacity Digit span is [email protected] a component of IQ tests
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Rapid Decay in STM Peterson & Peterson (1959) found evidence for rapid decay in STM Time (Seconds) Experimenter Subject 3 0 CHJ 506 506 503 500497 CHJ STOP 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 3 20 6 9 40 12 15 60 18 80 100 Retention Interval (Seconds) Percent Correct
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Capacity of LTM LTM capacity is virtually infinite Standing (1973) asked subjects to memorize between 20 and 10,000 pictures and gave them a forced‐choice [email protected] test 2 days later He found almost perfect [email protected] regardless of the number of study items
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Capacity of LTM Did Standing’s subjects remember gist or details? Brady et al (2008): Subjects looked at 2500 objects for 3 sec each and were later tested with foils that varied in similarity Sample Test % Correct 93% 88% 87% New Category New Example New State
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Durability of LTM Forgenng in LTM may be [email protected] due to retrieval failure rather than loss of [email protected] Analogy: Searching for [email protected] on the Web If you don’t use the right search terms, you won’t find what you’re looking for (cues) Google Advanced Search Web Show op*ons... Results 1 ‐ 10 of about 176,000 for doctor bong. (0.07 seconds) Search Results Image results for doctor bong ‐ Report images
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