Memory3bjw - PSC100
–
Memory
III
 Overview
of
today’s
lecture
 •  Some
other
types
of
memory
 – 

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Unformatted text preview: PSC100
–
Memory
III
 Overview
of
today’s
lecture
 •  Some
other
types
of
memory
 –  Eyewitness
tes?mony,
flashbulb
memory
 •  Source
memory
 •  Recogni?on/familiarity
 •  Amnesia
 –  Pa?ent
HM
 •  Some
brain
structures
associated
with
 memory
 –  Hippocampus,
PFC
 Special
Memories
 •  Prospec?ve
memory
 •  Flashbulb
memories
 •  Eyewitness
tes?mony
 Prospec?ve
Memory
 •  Remembering
to
do
something
 –  Remembering
to
come
to
lecture
 –  Picking
up
roommate
at
airport
 –  Remembering
to
bring
your
baby

 



to
daycare
before
going
to
work
 –  Remembering
to
post
a
study
guide
for
the
midterm
 •  Memory
retrieval
can
be
triggered
automa?cally
by
 cues
in
the
environment
 –  Leaving
your
previous
lecture
 –  Hear
baby
cry,
step
on
a
toy,
etc.
 –  Receiving
500
emails,
chatroom
messages,
and
ques?ons
 in
class
about
the
midterm
study
guide
 Flashbulb
Memories
 •  When
a
very
important
 event
occurs,
people
report
 having
vivid
and
long‐las?ng
 memories
of
the
event
 –  As
if
a
flashbulb
briefly
 illuminated
the
scene
 •  Typical
examples:
 –  –  –  –  –  Assassina?on
of
JFK
 Space
shuVle
accidents
 Princess
Diana’s
death
 Terrorist
aVacks
on
9/11/2001
 Personal
events
of
great
 significance
and
intensity
 •  Loss
of
loved
one
 •  First
kiss
 Flashbulb
Memories
 •  Why
are
such
memories
so
vivid?
 •  There
are
several
possibili?es:
 –  Emo?onal
intensity
leads
to
beVer
encoding
 –  Lots
of
elabora?on
at
the
moment
and
shortly
a\erwards
 –  Frequent
rehearsal
 Eyewitness
Tes?mony
 •  There
are
several
ways
in
which
eyewitness
 tes?mony
can
be
distorted
 •  Sugges?bility
 –  Lo\us,
Miller,
&
Burns
(1978)
 •  “Did
another
car
pass
the
red
car
while
it
was
stopped
 at
the
stop
sign?”
 •  This
sentence
implies
that
there
was
a
stop
sign
 •  When
later
asked
about
signs,
subjects
who
were
 asked
this
ques?on
tended
to
report
that
there
was
a
 stop
sign
even
though
it
was
actually
a
yield
sign
 Lost
in
a
shopping
mall
 Lo\us
&
Palmer
(1974)
 •  Each
subject
is
shown
7
short
films
of
traffic
 accidents
 •  A\er
each
film,
subject
describes
accident
and
 answers
mul?ple
ques?ons
 •  One
ques?on
is
“About
how
fast
were
the
cars
going
 when
they
_____
each
other?”
 –  Smashed,
collided,
hit,
bumped,
contacted
 –  Between‐subjects
design
 –  N=9
per
condi?on
‐‐
is
that
enough
to
draw
conclusions
 about
the
general
popula?on?
 •  Predic?on:
Reported
speed
greater
when
verb
 implies
more
severe
accident
 Experiment
1
 45 40.8 40 39.3 38.1 34 Reported Speed 35 31.8 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Smashed Collided Bumped Verb Hit Contacted Experiment
2
 •  Experiment
1
does
not
show
that
memory
was
changed
 by
the
ques?on
 –  May
have
changed
how
subjects
converted
their
memories
 into
car
speed
 •  Experiment
2
was
designed
to
show
that
a
ques?on
can
 distort
the
memory
itself
 –  150
subjects
saw
one
1‐minute
film
 –  “Smashed”,
“Hit”,
or
no‐ques?on
(N=50
per
group)
 –  Immediately
asked
to
judge
speed
 –  One
week
later:
“Did
you
see
any
broken
glass?”
 Experiment
2
 35% Percent reporting broken glass 32% 30% 25% 20% 14% 15% 12% 10% 5% 0% Smashed Hit Verb No Question Experiment
2
 Was
the
higher
probability
of
repor?ng
broken
glass
in
the
 “smashed”
group
caused
by
the
fact
that
they
previously
 reported
a
higher
speed?
 Percent reporting broken glass 70% 62% Smashed Hit 60% 50% 50% 41% 40% 30% 27% 25% 20% 10% 9% 6% 9% 0% 1-5 mph 6-10 mph 11-15 mph Reported Speed 16-20 mph Lo\us
&
Palmer
Conclusions
 •  People
are
o\en
terrible
at
recalling
numerical
 informa?on
such
as
speeds
 •  A
subtle
aspect
of
a
ques?on
can
influence
a
person’s
 report
of
the
contents
of
memory
 •  Leading
ques?ons
can
distort

 




the
memory
itself
 –  May
influence
the
responses
 



to
other
ques?ons
at
a
later
date
 Recollec?on
v.
Familiarity
 •  Two
ways
of
remembering
an
event
 –  Does
it
seem
familiar?
 –  Do
I
have
a
specific
recollec?on
of
the
event?
 •  Episodic
memory
/
Source
memory
 •  Either
can
be
used
for
recogni?on,
but
recall
usually
 depends
on
recollec?on
 •  Recollec?on
is
all‐or‐none;
familiarity
can
be
weaker
or
 stronger
 •  Familiarity
o\en
leads
to
certainty
of
truth
 –  “Illusion
of
truth”
 –  Statements
known
to
be
false
at
encoding
are
later
thought
 to
be
true
(when
recollec?on
is
absent
and
familiarity
 dominates)
 Familiarity
 •  Dissocia?on
between
impaired
recollec?on
 and
impaired
familiarity?
 •  Recollec?on
is
usually
much
more
reliable
 than
familiarity
 Familiarity
&
Eyewitness
Tes?mony
 •  Source
amnesia,
“illusion
of
truth”:
 –  False
fame
paradigm:
Subjects
see
list
of
fic??ous
 names
mixed
with
names
of
semi‐famous
people
(e.g.,
 Karl
Rove)
 •  Immediately
a\erwards,
they
know
who
is
famous
and
who
isn’t
 •  A\er
a
few
days
they
think
some
of
the
fic??ous
names
are
famous
 people
 –  Brown
et
al.
(1977):
 •  Subjects
see
a
mock
crime
and
then
look
at
mug
shots
 •  A
few
days
later
they
see
a
lineup
and
pick
out
innocent
people
who
 they
had
seen
in
the
mug
shots
 Some
real
world
examples
 •  Sailor
robs
?cket
agent
 •  Father
Pagano
 Repressed
memories
 The
Famous
Pa?ent
H.M.
 •  H.M.
had
severe
epilepsy
and
was
given
a
bilateral
 medial
temporal
lobectomy,
leading
to
profound
 anterograde
amnesia
with
some
retrograde
 amnesia
 –  Anterograde
amnesia:
No
new
memories
 –  Retrograde
amnesia:
No
memory
prior
to
lesion
 •  Old
audio
interviews
with
HM
released
in
2007
 Scanning
H.M.’s
Brain
 Scanning
H.M.’s
Brain
 H.M.
 Normal
 Lesion
of
medial
temporal
lobes,
 including
hippocampus
 Hippocampus
 •  Part
of
medial
temporal
lobes
(MTL)
shown
to
 play
cri?cal
role
in
memory
 –  Neuropsychological
evidence
 –  Single
unit
recording,
fMRI
 –  Why
no
ERP
evidence?
 •  Unique
characteris?cs
of
hippocampus
 –  Growth
of
new
neurons
(~10,000/day)
 –  Cells
in
this
region
sensi?ve
to
hypoxia,
 encephali?s,
epilepsy
 Hippocampus
and
spa?al
memory
 •  Animals
that
are
“scaVer
 hoarders”
(e.g.
grey
 squirrel)
tend
to
have
a
 large
hippocampus
rela?ve
 to
rest
of
brain
 •  Rats
naviga?ng
mazes
show
 strong
ac?vity
in
certain
 hippocampal
neurons
 •  Taxi
drivers
–
gross
changes
 in
hippocampus
 •  HM
heavily
impaired
in
 most
spa?al
memory
tasks
 Taxi
driver
study
 Volumetric analysis findings Maguire E A et al. PNAS 2000;97:4398-4403 Correlation of volume change with time as a taxi driver Brain
Regions
and
Amnesia
 •  Other
individuals
with
damage
to
the
medial
 temporal
lobes
(e.g.,
due
to
stroke)
also
show
 anterograde
amnesia
 •  Monkeys
who
are
given
lesions
to
the
medial
 temporal
lobes
also
show
anterograde
amnesia
 –  Example:
Trial‐unique
delayed
nonmatch‐to‐sample
 Wisconsin
General
 Tes?ng
Apparatus
 Delayed
Nonmatch
to
Sample
 Trial
1
 Sample
 Delay
 Test
 Trial
2
 Brain
Regions
and
Amnesia
 •  Damage
to
the
medial
diencephalic
areas
(midline
 thalamic
areas)
also
causes
profound
anterograde
 amnesia
 –  Korsakoff’s
syndrome
 –  Pa?ent
N.A.
 •  Damage
to
the
medial
temporal
lobes
or
medial
 diencephalic
areas
leads
to
deficits
in
explicit
 memory
but
not
implicit
memory
 –  Normal
motor
learning
 –  Normal
priming
(e.g.,
wordstem
comple?on)
 –  Normal
“habit
learning”
(gradual
learning
on
the
basis
of
 reinforcement)
 Habit
Learning
 In this learning game you are the weather forecaster. You will learn how to predict rain or shine using a deck of four cards: (75% Sun) (57% Sun) (43% Sun) (25% Sun) (Knowlton,
Mangels,
&
Squire,
1996)
 Habit
Learning
 Weather
Forecas?ng
 Accuracy
 Memory
for
Details
 of
Tes?ng
Session
 PD
=
Parkinson's
 Disease

 AMN
=
Amnesia
 CON
=
Controls
 Memory
Consolida?on
 Memory
for
News
Events
 •  Damage
to
the
medial
 temporal
lobes
causes
a
 “temporally
graded
retrograde
 amnesia”
 –  Inability
to
store
new
memories
 a\er
?me
of
lesion
 –  Some
loss
of
memories
for
 events
just
prior
to
the
lesion
 –  No
loss
of
memories
for
events
 long
before
the
lesion
 Control
 Subjects
 Hippocampal
 Lesion
 Pa?ents
 Name
of
John
McCain’s
running
mate
 Name
of
John
Kerry’s
running
mate
 Name
of
Michael
Dukakis’s
running
mate
 Smith
&
Squire
(2008)
 Memory
Consolida?on
 •  In
normal
brains,
the
medial
temporal
lobes
are
less
 ac?ve
for
distant
memories
than
recent
memories
 –  Other
cor?cal
areas
are
more
ac?ve
for
distant
memories
 Le\
Hippocampus
 Right
Middle
Frontal
Gyrus
 Smith
&
 Squire
 (2008)
 The
Role
of
Prefrontal
Cortex
 •  Damage
to
the
medial
temporal
lobes,
medial
 diencephalon,
and
related
structures
is
almost
always
 present
in
cases
of
dense
amnesia
 •  But
prefrontal
cortex
(PFC)
also
plays
a
role
in
long‐ term
memory
 –  Sensi?ve
tests
reveal
memory
deficits
following
PFC
lesions
 –  PFC
is
ac?ve
when
subjects
engage
in
seman?c
processing,
 which
is
important
for
good
encoding
 –  PFC
is
more
ac?ve
for
words
that
are
later
remembered
 than
for
words
that
are
forgoVen
 –  PFC
s?mula?on
can
lead
to
improved
memory
 performance
 PFC
Lesions
 •  PFC
lesions
lead
to
liVle
or
no
impairment
in
simple
item
memory
(e.g.,
“fish”
 was
on
the
list;
“Ronald
Reagan
was
born
in
1911”)
 •  Impairment
observed
when
different
pieces
of
informa?on
must
be
linked
in
 memory
(e.g.,
order
memory,
source
memory)
 Subjects
are
shown
15
words
on
cards
 Recall:
Recall
the
words
 Recogni?on:
Which
of
these
were
on
this
 list?
 Sequencing:
Put
the
cards
in
the
original
 order
 YOUNG
 OLD
 PFC
 YOUNG
 OLD
 PFC
 YOUNG
 OLD
 Janowsky
et
al.
(1989)
 PFC
 Shimamura
et
al.
(1990)
 Subjects
learn
20
facts;
tested
1
week
later
 Recall:
In
what
year
was
Ronald
Reagan
 born?
 Recogni?on:
Which
of
these
is
the
right
 year?
 Source:
Where
did
you
learn
this?
 PFC
Ac?vity
&
Successful
Encoding
 •  Lateral
inferior
PFC
is
more
ac?ve
during
seman?c
tasks
 than
non‐seman?c
tasks
 •  Also
more
ac?ve
for
words
that
are
later
remembered
 Remembered
minus
forgoVen
 in
seman?c
analysis
condi?on
 (measured
at
?me
of
 encoding)
 Seman?c
analysis
condi?on
 (concrete
vs
abstract
judgment)
 Minus
 Nonseman?c
analysis
condi?on
 (upper
case
vs
lower
case
 judgment)
 Wagner
et
al.
(1998)
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2010 for the course CSE 302 taught by Professor Joel during the Summer '05 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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