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Unformatted text preview: Test 1
Econ322 Section 002
Chappell
February 16, 2009
Name Last 5 Digits ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Instructions
Fill in your name and last five digits of your student number on this test sheet.
Multiple Choice questions must be answered on the test form. Please fill in your last name and your first name
in the spaces provided. Then bubble in the appropriate letters below your name.
You must also fill in the last 5 digits of your student number in the field called “ID Number.” Use the 5
columns on the left when you fill in these digits. Then bubble in the appropriate spaces below your number.
Problems and Analytical Questions should be answered directly on the test sheet. You must show your work. If
you do not show your work, you may not get full credit even if your numerical answer is correct. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) verage labor productivity is the A
1) _______ A) mount of output per worker. a
B) mount of workers per machine. a
C) atio of employed to unemployed workers. r
D) mount of machines per worker. a Definition 2) 2) _______ The unemployment rate is the A) umber of unemployed divided by the labor force. n
B) umber of employed divided by the number of unemployed. n
C) abor force divided by the number of unemployed. l
D) umber of unemployed divided by the number of employed. n Definition 3) he three approaches to measuring economic aggregate activity are the 3) _______ T
A) onsumer, business, and government approaches. c
B) rivate, public, and international approaches. p
C) roduct, income, and expenditure approaches. p
D) ost, income, and expenditure approaches. c One can define GDP, a measure of overall economic activity, as the dollar value of final goods and services produced in an economy in a period of time. This is the product approach. Since output produced is also purchased, one could also measure by expenditure. And since revenues that flow into firms when purchases are made must ultimately be paid out as income, in principle one can also measure activity by adding up incomes. 4) ntermediate goods are I
4) _______ A) ither capital goods or inventories. e
B) oods that are used up in the production of other goods in the g
same period that they were produced. C) apital goods, which are used up in the production of other goods c
but were produced in earlier periods. D) inal goods that remain in inventories. f For example, wheat used to make bread is an intermediate good, while bread purchased by a household is a final good. 5) uppose that private saving is $1590 billion, investment is $1945 billion, 5) _______ S
and net exports is $489 billion. Net factor payments from abroad is equal to zero. How much is government saving? A) 844 billion $
B) $134 billion C) 134 billion $
D) $844 billion  S = S govt + S pvt
S govt + S pvt = I + NX + NFP
S govt + 1590 = 1945 − 489 + 0 S govt = −134 6) ominal GDP in 1970 was $1,035.6 billion, and in 1980 it was $2,784.2 N
billion. The GDP price index was 30.6 for 1970 and 60.4 for 1980, where 1992 was the base year. Calculate the percent change in real GDP in the decade from 1970 to 1980. Round off to the nearest percentage point. A) 6% 3
B) 7% 9
C) 69% 1
D) 36% 1 Real GDP =100*(Nominal GDP/Deflator) So Real GDP (1970)= 100*(1035.6/30.6)=3382.35 And Real GDP (1980) = 100*(2784.2/60.4)=4609.6 Percentage rate of change =100%x[(4609.6‐3382.35)/3382.35]=36% 7) variable that tends to move at the same time as aggregate economic A
activity is called A) leading variable. a
B) n acyclical variable. a
C) lagging variable. a
D) coincident variable. a Definition 8) hich of the following is true? W
A) mployment is countercyclical and unemployment is coincident E
with the business cycle. B) mployment and unemployment are both procyclical. E
C) mployment is procyclical and unemployment is countercyclical. E
D) mployment and unemployment are both coincident with the E
business cycle. Over a business cycle, when GDP rises (same direction), employment rises, but unemployment falls (opposite direction). 9) he two main characteristics of a graph of the production function, T
plotting output (vertical axis) agains the quantity of labor input (horizontal axis), are A) t slopes upward from left to right, and the slope becomes flatter as i
the input increases. B) t slopes downward from left to right, and the slope becomes i
flatter as the input increases. C) t slopes upward from left to right, and the slope becomes steeper i
as the input increases. D) t slopes downward from left to right, and the slope becomes i
steeper as the input increases. With more input the economy produces more output; however labor is subject to a diminishing marginal product (and marginal product is the slope of the production function). 10) n adverse (negative) supply shock would A 6) _______ 7) _______ 8) _______ 9) _______ 10) ______ A) hift the production function down and increase marginal s
products at every level of employment. B) hift the production function down and decrease marginal s
products at every level of employment. C) hift the production function up and increase marginal products at s
every level of employment. D) hift the production function up and decrease marginal products s
at every level of employment. A negative supply shock implies that we get less output for given inputs, which causes the production function to shift downward. Normally, this also lowers the slope at any input level (for example, this must be true if the supply shock is modeled as a reduction in “A”) 11) n increase in the real wage rate will cause A
11) ______ A) he quantity of labor demanded to rise. t
B) he labor demand curve to shift to the left. t
C) movement along the labor demand curve. a
D) he labor demand curve to shift to the right. t The labor demand curve plots the quantity of labor demanded versus the real wage. So, as w varies we are moving along a labor demand curve. 12) ______ 12) he Widget Company has the following production function. T Number of Workers Number of Cases Produced 0 0 1 9 2 17 3 24 4 30 5 35 If widgets sell for $6 each and the wage rate is $33, how many workers will the company hire? A) 0
B) 4
C) 2
D) 1 For profit maximization, hire labor so long as P*MPN>=W. For the fourth worker added, MPN is 6, and P*MPN is 6x6 or $36 > $33. So the fourth worker will be hired. However, a fifth worker would have P*MPN=30<33 and will not be hired. 13) n adverse supply shock, such as a reduced supply of raw materials, A
13) ______ would A) ot affect the marginal product of labor. n
B) ecrease the marginal product of capital, but have no effect on the d
marginal product of labor. C) ecrease the marginal product of labor. d
D) ncrease the marginal product of labor. i See question 10. 14) f Jeffʹs wage rate rises, he decides to work fewer hours. From this, we I
can infer that A) or Jeff, the substitution effect is less than the income effect. f
B) or Jeff, the substitution effect is greater than the income effect. f
C) or Jeff, the substitution effect is equal to the income effect. f
D) eff is a nitwit. J A higher wage makes leisure more expensive, and Jeff will take less leisure (and work more) according to the substitution effect. However, since her works less, the income effect must dominate. With more income, usually a person consumes more of both goods and leisure, and more leisure means less work. 15) sharp increase in stock prices makes people much wealthier. If the A
main effect of this increased wealth is felt on labor supply, what happens to current employment and the real wage rate? A) oth employment and the real wage rate would decrease. B
B) mployment would increase and the real wage would decrease. E
C) oth employment and the real wage rate would increase. B
D) mployment would decrease and the real wage would increase. E The effect on labor supply is that people work less, shifting labor supply left, and putting upward pressure on the real wage. 16) ith no inflation and a nominal interest rate (i) of .03, a person can W
trade off one unit of current consumption for ________ units of future consumption. A) 03 .
B) .97 0
C) .03 D) .03 1 One real dollar today gives me (trades for) $1.03 real dollars tomorrow ($1 principal plus .03 interest). 17) n increase in expected future output while holding todayʹs output A
constant would A) ecrease todayʹs desired consumption and decrease desired d
national saving. B) ncrease todayʹs desired consumption and decrease desired i
national saving. C) ncrease todayʹs desired consumption and increase desired i
national saving. D) ecrease todayʹs desired consumption and increase desired d
national saving. This is like an increase in wealth, which leads me to consume more and save less. 18) f the substitution effect of the real interest rate on saving is larger than I
the income effect of the real interest rate on saving, then a rise in the real 14) ______ 15) ______ 16) ______ 17) ______ inte te leads rest to a ________ 18) in desired consump
tion and a ________ in desired saving, for someone whoʹs a lender. A) ise; rise r ___
___ B) all; rise f C) all; fall f D) ise; fall r An increase in the real rate of interest makes current consumption more expensive, and, by the substitution effect, encourages less consumption and more saving. 19) f the government cuts taxes today, issuing debt today and repaying the 19) ______ I
debt plus interest next year, a rational taxpayer will A) ncrease consumption today, before taxes go up next year. i
B) pend the full amount of the tax cut today and reduce s
consumption next year. C) eave a smaller gross bequest to her or his heirs. l
D) ncrease saving today, leaving consumption unchanged. i A rational consumer recognizes that the current tax cut has no effect on his
wealth and therefore does not change his consumption. Rather, he saves the amount of the tax cut in order to be able to pay the future tax. 20) alculate the user cost of capital of a machine that has a price of $5000 C
20) ______ and depreciates at a rate of 25%, when the expected real interest rate is 5%. A) 150 $
B) 500 $
C) 5000 $
D) 1500 $ uc=(r+d)Pk=(.05+.25)5000=1500 21) uppose your company is in equilibrium, with its capital stock at its S
21) ______ desired level. A permanent decline in the expected real interest rate now has what effect on your desired capital stock? A) owers it, because the user cost of capital is now higher L
B) aises it, because the user cost of capital is now lower R
C) aises it, because the future marginal productivity of capital is R
higher D) owers it, because the future marginal productivity of capital is L
lower This event lowers the user cost of capital and therefore increases the desired capital stock (capital must rise if we are to continue to satisfy the profit maximization condition that the expected future marginal product of capital is to equal the user cost of capital) 22) ou are trying to figure out how much capacity to add to your factory. Y
22) ______ You will increase capacity as long as A) he expected marginal product of capital is greater than or equal to t
the expected marginal product of labor. B) he expected marginal product of capital is greater than or equal to t
the marginal product of capital. C) he expected marginal product of capital is positive. t
D) he expected marginal product of capital is greater than or equal to t
the user cost of capital. The explanation for the previous question indicates that this is the condition for profit maximization in the use of capital. 23) ny change in the economy that raises desired national saving for a A
23) ______ given value of the real interest rate will shift the desired national saving curve to A) he right and increase the real interest rate. t
B) he left and decrease the real interest rate. t
C) he left and increase the real interest rate. t
D) he right and decrease the real interest rate. t We plot saving (horizontal axis) versus the interest rate (vertical axis). So if saving is larger for a given interest rate, the curve must shift right. We slide down the desired investment curve to a lower rate of interest. 24) temporary decrease in government purchases would cause A
24) ______ A) rightward shift in the saving curve and a rightward shift in the a
investment curve. B) rightward shift in the saving curve and a leftward shift in the a
investment curve. C) rightward shift in the saving curve, but no shift in the investment a
curve. D) o shift in the saving curve, but a leftward shift in the investment n
curve. A decrease in government spending directly increases government saving. The private sector would consume more, but because of the consumption smoothing motive, the reduction in private saving would not fully offset the increase in government saving.. So the saving curve shifts right. The investment curve does not shift. Nothing has affected the expected future marginal product of capital or the user cost of capital. 25) n invention that raises the future marginal product of capital would A
25) ______ cause an increase in desiredinvestment, which would cause the investment curve to shift to the ________ and would cause the real interest rate to ________. A) eft; increase l
C) ight; decrease r B) eft; decrease l
D) ight; increase r More desired investment shifts the desired investment curve to the right (Investment is on the horizontal axis). We slide up the saving curve to a higher rate of interest. Problems and Analytical Questions
Show all of your work on all problems and analytical questions.
Question 1
Suppose that you purchase a government bond for $400. One year later, you receive
principal and interest totaling $436. During the year, the consumer price index rose from
150 to 162.
(a) Calculate the nominal rate of interest paid by this bond. (b) Calculate the real rate of interest paid by this bond. Question 2
Suppose that the marginal product of labor is:
MPN = 200 − 0.5 N The aggregate quantity of labor supplied is:
N = 300 + 8w In these equations, N refers to the number of workers employed and w is the real wage
rate.
(a) What is the equilibrium real wage? (b) What is the equilibrium level of the number of workers employed? Question 3
An economy has a full employment level of output, Y, equal to 5000.Government
purchases, G, are equal to 1000.
Desired consumption is given by: C d = 3000 − 2000r + 0.10Y
Desired investment is given by: I d 1000 − 4000r
In the equations above, Y is real output and r is the expected real rate of interest. (a) What is the equilibrium level of the expected real rate of interest? (b) What is the equilibrium level of desired consumption? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2010 for the course ECON 020 taught by Professor Sc during the Spring '10 term at Arizona.
 Spring '10
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