Guttmann%20Spread%20of%20Sport%20in%20Japan

Guttmann%20Spread%20of%20Sport%20in%20Japan - 22 Europe S...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 22 Europe, S port, World 49. Dell/fiche Turn/Iliitter, Porto Alegre: dezembro de 1915. No.8, pp.8l~4. 50. Der/mile Turnbliitter, Porto Alegre: agosto de 1939. 51. Deutsche Tm-nlzliilter, Porto Alegre: setembro de 1935. N022, p3. 52. Ibid., p.5. Fug-TA.— Educators, Imitators, Modernizers: The Arrival and Spread of Modern Sport in Japan » ALLEN GUTTMANN and LEE THOMPSON' CLOSURE Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries from Portugaland Spain had arrived in Japan in the sixteenth century, decades before Tokugawa leyasu (1543—1606) defeated his rivals and consolidated his control over a more or less unified nation. The European missionaries actively propagated their religion among the ‘heathen’, many of which were eager to embrace Roman Catholicism. The missionaries proved to be too successful for their own good. The large number of converts to Christianity, especially in the area around Nagasaki, led to a viciously xenophobic reaction. The vk shogunate banned Christianity, murdered thousands of Japanese who refused to renounce their new religion, ordered the expulsion of the European priests, executed those who defied the order to leave, and sought to seal the country off from foreign influence. The closure was never total. Some intercourse was permitted through a small Dutch settlement on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki harbour. (Protestants were thought to be less dangerous than Catholics.) The Tokugawa file/62' records that the eighth Shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684—1751), watched. what may have been the first Western sport introduced to Japan: an exhibition of fencing by the Dutch.1 Of course, European and American sports had not yet developed into the forms familiar to us today. The rare Japanese whom the ever—suspicious government permitted to visit the butch settlement were able to observe the long—nosed, foreigners at their amusements, which included a precursor of badminton. The game was described in 1787 by Morishima Chfiryo in Ké'mo‘zatsuma (Tales of the Red Hairs), along with illustrations of the racket and shuttlecock.Z Other examples include a woodblock print of 24 Europe, Sport, World the Tokugawa period showing the Dutch at a game of billiards. Such interest was unusual. While a number of eighteenth—century Japanese were eager students of Western medical science and military technology, which they studied in Dutch texts, few of them left evidence of much curiosity about Western sports.3 OPENING On 8 July 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry arrived at the port of Uraga with a letter to the Tokugawa shogun from President Franklin Pierce, informing the Japanese that the United States (US) expected them to open their islands to trade and provide humane treatment for shipwrecked American seamen. Perry returned the following February with a larger naval force, and a treaty was signed on 31 March 1854.“l Eight months later, Sir John Stirling successfully negotiated a similar treaty between Japan and Great Britain.‘ Mercantile motives brought Perry to Japanese shores, but sport played a small part in hisinitial interactions with his reluctant hosts. In addition to a minstrel show, Perry’s sailors put on a display of manly fisticuffs. The Japanese responded with an exhibition by a score of beefy sumo wrestlers. Neither party seemed properly impressed by the other. The Americans were disgusted by the massive wrestlers and a contemporary Japanese woodblock print shows ‘bulky .../wrestlers delivering the shogun’s gift of bales of rice‘ to the scrawny American sailors’.‘ During Stirling’s negotiations, the British were allowed to/land and indulge in ‘athletic sports’.6 Townsend Harris, the first American consul, arrived in August 1856 and was met with ‘consternation’.’ Additional treaties with France and other European powers brought more diplomats, more merchants, and more dismay. For a dozen years, the shogunate was riven with internal disagreement and was undecided about what to do with the largely increasing number of foreigners with increasingly inconvenient demands. Inconclusive' debates within the government led to ambiguous policies and general confusion. The resolution came in 1868 in the form of the ‘Meiji Restoration’. The term ‘restoration’ suggests that the revolution of 1868 that ended centuries of Tokugawa rule returned Japan to imperial rule, but the emperor enthroned in Tokyo was more or less the same figurehead he had been in Kyoto. In fact, real power was in the hands of clan activists The Arrival and Spread of M oderrz S port in Japan 25 whose ‘restoration’ Was actually part of a bold venture in what might be termed instrumental modernisation. The new rulers were plagued by power struggles among the leading clans, but there was a consensus about foreign policy. Japan should acquire from the West the modern science and technology necessary to defend Japan against the very real threat of foreign domination. (China’s helplessness in the face of European military might was an ominousindication of the danger to Japan.) In addition to {the Western experts who were invited to Japan, over 11,000 Japanese went abroad for study between 1868 and 1902. Among them was Ito Hirobumi, the nation’s first prime ministers The modernizers’ emulation of the West’s scientific and technological achievements was often constrained by the desire to preserve What began to be identified as Japanese culture. The fiVC~ volume published report of the Iwakura Tomomi mission’s two—year sojourn in Europe and the US advocated modernization (human knowledge rushes9 toward enlightenment), but the authors cautioned against the hasty abandonment of ‘old institutions and practices’.’ There were, however, some intellectuals whose admiration of the West (and denigration of their own culture) was uncritical and extreme. Mori Arinori suggested in 1872 that the country adopt English as the national language and Takahashi Yoshio, writing in 1884, urged that Japanese husbands. divorce their wives and marry Western women of robust physique and superior intellect.10 Inevitably, uncritical enthusiasm for Europe and the US aroused nationalistic opposition. Motoda Nagazane, for instance, condemned what he saw as the effort ‘to convert Japanese into facsimiles of Europeans and Americans’.11 Criticism of the modernizers often took the form of verbal or pictorial satire. The nineteenth—century novelist Kanagaki Robun ridiculed his co‘untrymen for aping the ‘barbarians’ by wearing top hats, carrying umbrellas, eating beef, and ostentatiously consulting their pocket Watches.” Cartoons in conservative journals lampooned sandal—shod Students with thick—lensed spectacles and armloads of foreign books. Hostility was also expressed through the murder of foreigners resident in Japan. Townsend Harris’s secretary, Hendrik Heusken, was killed in January 1861 and British diplomats were attacked that July. Xenophobia also accounted for the 1889 assassination of the minister of education, Mori Arinori, who was thought to have betrayed Japan’s traditional culture.” The ‘Imperial Rescript on Education’ of 1890, promulgated after two 26 Europe, S port, Wbrld decades of modernization, was a positive assertion of Japanese culture. Calling upon all Japanese to venerate the emperor; the Rescript was a powerful statement of ‘invented tradition’.” Its goal was to transform the deified emperor into the focal point of patriotic sentiment.ls To ‘revere the emperor’ was not, however, necessarily to ‘expel the barbarians’. The men behind the ‘Imperial Rescript’ ~ men like Motoda Nagazane and Nishimura Shigeki — wanted to slow but not reverse the drive to bring Japan into the modern world.16 SN. Eisenstadt’s shrewd comment about the recent past applies as well to the crosscurrents‘iof change in the Meiji period: ‘Tradition or traditionalism tended to become a crucial symbol of legitimation for new patterns of behavior, organisation, cultural creativity, and discourse.’17 , Steamships, telegraph lines and modern weaponry were very much on the modernizers’ minds, not cricket bats and rowing shells. On their extended missions to Europe and America, Japanese officials investigated mines and factories, not baseball diamonds and tennis courts. Japanese children’s songs, which were certainly composed for and not by children, listed lightning rods and gas lamps, not sports equipment, among ‘worthy objects’:18 The enthusiasm for modern sports — like the vogue among the Meiji elite of Western dress and cuisine — was an unintended consequence of the desire for locomotives and coastal artillery To put it in the language of the businessmen, who arrived in Japan along with the foreign diplomats, advisors and teachers, the modernizers got more than they bargained for. ,_ r In the course of the Meiji period (186784912), a series of modern sports popular in the West was introduced to Japan.” Government attempts to modernize the military led to the introduction of gymnastics, fencing, rifle shooting, riding, and skiing/European and American residents in the trading communities of Yokohama o'r Kobe introduced football, rowing, athletics, tennis, baseball, cricket and golf. The Meiji government invited many scholars from Europe and America to teach in the newly established school system, and they introduced their students to baseball, association football, rowing, athletics, rugby, tennis and skating.20 Foreign missionaries, especially those associated with the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), propagated basketball, volleyball, hockey and badminton. Students and other Japanese, who had lived abroad, brought back with them table tennis, I handball, basketball and volleyball. Participation in the Olympics and The Arrival cma’ S pread Modern Sport in japan ' 27 other international sports events introduced wrestling, weightlifting and canoeing. In addition, voluntary sports clubs took up activities such as yachting and climbing.21 Although some scholars have seen the global diffusion of these sports as proof of ‘cultural imperialism’,22 coercion played a very small part in their adoption by the Japanese. On the contrary, the modernizing elite seemed as eager to emulate Westerners at play as they were to learn from Westerners at work?3 It should be emphasized, however, that enthusiasm for British and American sports was for the most part limited to this modernizing elite. This was especially true in the early years of the Meiji period. Farmers, who still constituted the vast majority of the population, remained for the most part content with the physical contests traditionally associated with their seasonal festivals. In most societies en route to modernity, the military have played an important role and Japan was certainly no exception. The Meiji leaders imported the weaponry of ,modern warfare and passed legislation to reconstitute the nation’s ineffective military. A conscript armyreplaced the samurai who had been Japan’s traditional warriors.“ (The samurai, deprived of their principal function, also lost their right to wear the swords that had distinguished them from lesser moi‘tals.) Between 1867 and 1880, French officers supervised the new army’s training. Reorganisation included the adoption of Western notions of physical fitness and the proper ways to attain it. At the newly established Toyama Military School (1875), the French instructed their Japanese counterparts in the gymnastic principles they had learned from Francisco Amoros at their military academy in Joinville. They also taught the Japanese officers how to ride and to fence in the European manner.“ In the dissemination of modern sports, however, French officers were soon supplanted by British businessmen and diplomatic officials and by American educators and advisors to the Japanese government. I Despite the fact that Japanese terrain was seldom suitable for cricket, a sport requiring an extensive and well—tended field of play, British bowlers and batsmen refused to deny themselves the pleasures of that pastoral game. On 16 October 1869, lerritons resident in the port city of Kobe met a team from HMS Ocean. A cricket club was promptly organized three days later, thanks largely to the initiative of Arthur Hesketh Groom.26 Shortly thereafter, the British founded the Yokohama Cricket and Athletic Club in Kobe, where occasional matches between 28 Europe, Sport, World the garrison and visiting naval personnel had actually taken place as early as 1864.27 Although a few Japanese tried their hand at cricket, the sport never became popular. ‘Today cricket is almost the' only major foreign sport that does not interest Japanese at all.’28 Readers consulting the Kodaasha Encyclopedia of Japan will find an entry under ‘cricket’; it provides information on insects of the order Orthoptera. As early as 1862, the British organized horse races in Yokohama, gala spectacles attended by the entire foreign community. In 1868, the British residents of Kobe followed suit and celebrated Christmas Day with a horse race. It was not unqualified success. The Japanese mounts bolted when the race went by their stables. Three of the jockeys were thrown.” However, this mishap was not enough to extinguish the ardour of the Victorian upper class. The Kobe Jockey Club was organized in 1870, and within a few years, the turf became a theme forwoodblock prints by . Hasegawa and other artists. Prints from the 18805 show the emperor and his entourage in the grandstand at Ueno.30 Both forms of another British passion ~ fpotball — were played at Japan’s private universities during the Meiji period. Soccer, which was introduced at the School of Engineering around 1873 by ‘an Englishman named Jones’,31 failed to gain much of a foothold. According to Kinoshita Hideaki, it was not until 1907 that two Japanese teams met on the soccer pitch.32 The sport was not organized nationally until 1921. Rugby, then the more popular of the two football ‘codes’, was played at private universities like Keio and Waseda. In 1890, only a year after Cambridge graduate introduced the game to Keio, the students played against the British members of the Yokohama Athletic Club.33 In the Kansai area, which includes Kobe, Osaka, and Kyoto, Doshisha University emerged as a hotbed of rugby enthusiasm. 1927, these _ private schools joined with the nation’s most prestigious public universities (Tokyo and Kyoto) to form a national federation for rugby.“ Some sanguine British observers believed that ‘the day is not far distant when [rugby] will eclipse baseball in popular esteem’,35 but that has not yet happened ~ despite the excitement that accompanied Kobe Steel’s unprecedented string of seven Consecutive national titles from 1989 to 1995.36 Athletics (track and field) events were introduced as part of the r undo/ear (sports days) at various schools. The earliest of these may have been the ‘Student Competitive Games’ held in 1874 at the Naval Academy in the Tsukiji section of Tokyo. The initiative apparently came 7726 Arrival and S pread of M oa’era S port in japan 29 from the thirty—four British naval officers who had assumed posts at the academy the previous year.37 Prizes were awarded to the top placers. Four years later, an American educator, William Clark, introduced athletics to the students of Sapporo Agricultural College. Educated Japanese learned to quOte Dr Clark, in English: ‘Boys, be ambitious’, but interest in ‘athletics’ remained minimal until the initiatives taken in 1883 by Frederick W. Strange, an Englishman who arrived in Japan in 1875 to teach at Ichiko, which became the nation’s most prestigious academy.38 Imbued with the Victorian conviction that sport was the proper antidote for an excess of intellectual endeavour, Strangesummoned the students ‘to come out and play games’. This historic athletics meeting took place on 16 June 1883. The participants were students from Ichiko and the college that eventually became Tokyo University. A 300—yard bamboo—fenced tracle was laid out on the college grounds. All of the customary running, jumping, vaulting and throwing events were included, along with the running of a three~legged race and hurling a cricket ball. For the shot put and the hammer throvg, Strange made do with whatever equipment was available. For example, ‘Instead of a pistol shot, the start was signalled by swinging down a folded Western—style umbrella.’39 There was also ‘a story that he brought out the school benches for use as hurdles’.40 Thanks to the prestige of Tokyo ' University, this particular undékai greatly influenced the development of athletics on other campuses where students 'were also keenly interested in foreign sports.‘l To spread the gospel of manly sports, Strange wrote a short book entitled Outdoor Games (1883), which Shimomura Yasuhiro translated in 1885. In 1900 Shiki Shuji published Ri/eujo‘ leg/o‘gz' (Track—and—Field Contests), the first book on the subject in Japanese. The term ‘rikujé kyogi’ is still employed for athletics events.“‘2 At the turn of the century, distance races became popular. When Yamaguchi HigheréSchool staged an 11—mile race in 1899, other schools were stimulated to hold their own distance races, each one longer than the one before. In November 1901 the newspaper jz'jz' S/a'mpo‘ sponsored a 12— hour racearound the perimetre (1478 metres) of Tokyo’s Lake Shinobazu. A 25—year—old rickshaw—puller, Ando Shotaro, won the event, circling the lake 71 times. In March 1909 a newspaper, Osaka’s Maz'm'chz' S/a'mlzun, sponsored what was publicized as the ‘Kobe to Osaka Marathon Race’. (The distance was actually 19.56 miles.) A reservist from Okayama Prefecture, Kenko Chonosuke, won in 2 hours, 10 minutes, and 54 seconds.43 30 Europe, Sport, Worla’ In the fall of 1902, Tokyo University’s law department sponsored an undokai at which one of the students, Fujii Minoru, was clocked in the- 100 metres at 10.24 seconds, an astonishing time. The president of the university, Hamao Arita, proudly announced the time as a world record and was listed as such by Spaltlz'ng’s Athletic Almanac.44 According to Fujii Minoru’s memoirs, reproduced _in the 1997 bulletin of the Tokyo University Track and Field Club, his time was measured by an electric device developed by Tanakadate A1k1tsu, a professor of physics who was also apparently the head judge at the meeting. The start and finish of the race activated an electric current in a machine that wound a tape at a speed of three centimetres per second. The current was cut when Fujii crossed the finish line, and the length of the tape was then measured to determine the elapsed time to one— hundredth of a second.45 Noting that Fujii never again approached his sensational time of 10.24, sports historians have been sceptical about the alleged world record. In 1906, Fujii was said to have pole—vaulted 3.9 metres, which was 12 centimetres higher than the world record, but th1s remarkable achievement was not recognized outside of Japan.46 Japanese men have never done very well in athletics competition with European and American sprinters. In 1912, for instance, when the world” record for 100 metres was 10.6 seconds, Mishima Yahiko held the Japanese title with the unimpressive time of 12 seconds. The ZOO—metre record set in 1911 by Akashi Kazue was a very slow 25.8 seconds.47 Japanese runners were destined to do better in long~distanée races than in the sprints. In fact, long—distance relay races have become a Japanese specialty.48 In 1917, Tokyo’s Yomiari Shim/71m celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the 1867 transfer of the capital from Kyoto to Tokyo by sponsoring a 508—kilometre relay race from Kyoto’s. Sanjo Bridge to Tokyo’s Ueno Park. Still another newspaper, the H 66/” S htt’ttbtm, 1ny1ted students from Keio, Waseda and other universities to part1c1pate in an e/ez'a’en (long—distance relay race) from Tokyo to the resort town of Hakone and back, a distance of over 200 kilometres. Ten thousand- spectators watched the first race on 11 February...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern