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1-Atomic Theory of Matter - 5.111 Lecture Summary#1...

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5.111 Lecture Summary #1 September 9, 2009 1.1 Reading and Problem Set: See Last Page of Notes ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER Greeks, before 400 BC: Matter made up of four fundamental substances, fire, earth, water and air Then two competing theories Aristotle, 384-322 BC: Continuum theory of matter; matter infinitely divisible Democritus, 460-370 BC: Particle theory of matter; matter composed of small, indivisible particles called “atoms” “a” (not) “tomos” (divisible) Next 2000 years dominated by alchemists, obsessed with turning base metals into gold Continuum model prevailed until 17 th century – the beginnings of chemical science Robert Boyle, 1661, theologian: PV = constant; elements, “perfectly mixed bodies” Joseph Priestly, 1774: dephlogisticated air (O 2 ) Antoine Lavoisier, 1743-1794: conservation of mass chemical reaction analogous to algebraic equation one of the 1st periodic tables Joseph Proust, 1754-1826: Law of Definite Proportions
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5.111 Lecture Summary #1 September 9, 2009 1.2 John Dalton postulated atomic theory of matter, 1808: 1. Each element composed of atoms 2. All atoms of an element are identical; atoms of different elements are different and have different properties 3. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine 4. Atoms are not changed by forming compounds or reactions — not created or destroyed. Dalton’s hypothesis further substantiated by: J. Gay-Lussac: Law of Combining Volumes Avogadro: Equal volumes of different gases (same T & P) contain equal number of particles Boltzmann: Gas kinetic theory Cannizzaro: Statesmanship!
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