L2_MolBio - ECEN 689 Statistical Computation in GSP

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ECEN 689 Statistical Computation in GSP http://www.ece.tamu.edu/~ulisses/ECEN689/ Lecture 2: Basic Concepts of Molecular Biology Ulisses Braga-Neto Genomic Signal Processing Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Texas A&M University
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Mendelian Laws of Genetic Inheritance • Since the dawn of time people have known that offspring (both human and domestic animals) resemble their parents, as well as their siblings. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), working in isolation with pea plants in a monastery garden, was able to demonstrate around 1865 that there are precise quantitative laws that govern heredity . • He was also one of the first to use a rigorous experimental methodology in biology. • Mendel’s discoveries were ahead of their time, and thus were not appreciated or became well-known until 1900, well after his death.
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Genes and Chromosomes • By 1900, experiments with fruit flies established beyond any debate that discrete entities, which were called genes , determine specific features of the individual, and are passed from one generation to the next, according to the Mendelian Laws. • At about the same time, structures were observed by microscope in cells undergoing division. These structures received the name of chromosomes , due to the staining technique used to observe them. • It was correctly hypothesized that genes were carried by the chromosomes to the daughter cells, but no one had any idea what genes were made of.
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Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle • The interval that goes from a newly divided cell to the production of two cells is the cell division cycle and is divided into four successive phases: - Gap 1 (G1) - Synthesis (S) - Gap 2 (G2) - Mitosis (M) • Chromosomes during G1, S, and G2 are loosely strands of DNA bound with histone proteins. • Each chromosome is duplicated during the S phase. • At the onset of Mitosis, chromosomes become condensed and visible by cytochemical staining.
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Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle - II metaphase chromosome the cell cycle From Pasternak, Jack K. “Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics : Mechanisms of Inherited Diseases” (2nd Edition), Wiley, 2005.
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Human Chromosomes From Pasternak, Jack K. “Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics : Mechanisms of Inherited Diseases” (2nd Edition), Wiley, 2005. 22 autosomes + 1 sex chromosome = 23 x 2 parents = 46 chromosomes
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More on Chromosomes • Mitosis, just described, is the cell division process for somatic (body) cells. Here there is no mixture of information between chromosomes. • Meiosis is the cell division process for gamete cells (spermatozoid and egg). This is a more complex method, generating cells with ½ the number of chromosomes and allowing crossing-over of pieces between parental and maternal chromosomes, which generate extra genetic variability.
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2010 for the course ECEN 689-601 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Texas A&M.

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L2_MolBio - ECEN 689 Statistical Computation in GSP

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