04Adapt06x

04Adapt06x - 4. identifying purpose (white-tailed deer rump...

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How do we know a behaviour is adaptive? Produced at Shutler Studios, Bon Portage Island, NS
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What? proximate (dictionary) : “adjustment to circumstances or an environment . ..” ultimate: “… process of genetic change … where avg. state of character in population improves .” - prediction of most evolutionary theories
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Temptation & tautology - if not adaptive, wouldn’t see it as scientist, need evidence
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Evidence for adaptation? Within species : Fitness - best adapted = fittest; how assessed? survivorship? descendants? Problems 1. tough to follow long enuf, unless short- lived ( Drosophila ), or long-term (Goodall) - indices: growth or body size (e.g., pupal size in insects), offspring in one yr., time alive,
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2. if animal has several behavs., which responsible for fitness? 3. correlation among behavs. (e.g., if dancers also good runners, which makes fitter?) - large samples (e.g. fitness of smokers vs. non-)
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Unformatted text preview: 4. identifying purpose (white-tailed deer rump flash) - Spandrels … Display rate Costs / benefits Optimal, predicted Within or of species : optimality- best litter size? number of mates?- how to test? Benefits Costs- cost-benefit (prediction) vs. observed vs. null- “suboptimal” behavs. reveal constraints Which sp. best adapted?- how to judge? total numbers or density? life span? frequency of good eatin’? if species replacing self, or better- fitness measured within sp.; max = 1 E. coli trees filter feeders Sources Crone, E. E. 2001. Is survivorship a better fitness surrogate than fecundity? Evolution, 55:2611–2614. Futuyma, D. J. 1986. Evolutionary biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., USA. Gould, S. J., and Lewontin, R. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco & the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist program. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 205: 581-598....
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2010 for the course BIOL 3143 taught by Professor Daveshutler during the Winter '10 term at Acadia.

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04Adapt06x - 4. identifying purpose (white-tailed deer rump...

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