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05AntiPred06x - Natural selection fitness What to do to...

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Natural selection & fitness What to do to pass on genes? 1. survival (viability) 2. sexual 3. fertility
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Surviving 1: Escaping true predators (or parasites) From the mind in PAT 323
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1. Avoiding encounter - 1 st & simplest A. Appear (or be) rare i. unlikely places (selection to differ) or active when predators not ii. hide (=crypsis; see below) iii. polymorphism
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Polymorphism in detail - individual strategy (usu.) only via offspring production - (usu.) discrete morphs - multiple, sympatric; even among sibs - usu. limited number of genes H1. prevents predators from wiping out sp. H2. each morph adapted to different part of a super-niche (e.g., Littorina snails, moth larvae and food plant) H3. frequency-dependent (apostatic) predation your faves?`
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Frequency-dependent predation 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 Proportion available Proportion taken (hypothetical data)
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- rarest morph has ↑est survival - predators specialise on 1 morph ( search images ) & don’t recognise rest as food B. One-up-animal-ship - detect predators 1st; vigilance - eyes, sniffing, ears (incl. sonar) - cooperating & warning displays (e.g., vervets)
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2. Avoid detection A. freeze - predators sense motion (e.g., shorebirds, ptarmigan) B. crypsis - most studied - morph & behav; immobility - smell, electrical, …
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i. disruptive coloration - breaks outline, body extends to background - hard to see contour, shape (e.g., snakes, bittern, zebra)
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ii. countershading (fish incl. photophores, seabirds, mammals) - but mammals not preyed on from below; H2? H3? - reduce effects of uv ? - thermal benefits?
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iii. transparency - aquatic (jellyfish, eel larvae) iv. background matching - rapid colour change (cuttlefish, flatfish in Newport , chameleons)
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- slow (poplar hawkmoth vs. larval food,
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