06Forage06x

06Forage06x - S u r v iv in g I I : G e ttin g fo o d D r D...

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Unformatted text preview: S u r v iv in g I I : G e ttin g fo o d D r D a v e S h u t le r , A s c h o la r b u t n o g e n t le m a n Intro- animals (vs. autotrophs) need to forage!- herbivory carnivory continuum- which extreme more common?- why do omnivores usually prefer meat?- costs/benefits of speation? Herbivory- why vegetation digestible?- how to overcome? 1. microbial symbionts a. internal- rumens & cud-chewing- how to young?- anal licking b. external- coprophagy- leaf-cutter ants 2. quantity & frequency e.g., cow vs. lion 3. avoid indigestible- parts without 2 compounds; fruits & seeds- sap (e.g., leafhoppers)- nectar- ants & aphid honeydew- protein for latter? (4. wait for conversion to meat?) Resource value & competition- e.g., cheetahs, lions, hyenas, vultures vs. herbivore examples? Special (mostly) carnivore adaptations i. traps (e.g.?)- caddisfly net, antlion cone, spider web, anglerfish lure, bubble corral of whales ii. tools (e.g.?)- Egyptian vulture, cactus finch, otter, chimps & stems iii. cooperation (e.g.?)- ants, Harris hawks, wolves, hyenas, lions, iv. mutualism, commensalism, parasitism- remora & shark, badger & fox Optimal foraging Why?- resources to reproduce; more & larger propagules- time exposed to predators Consequences- foraging not haphazard & calm- suite of traits e.g., frequency of barnacle waves, , migration vs. hoarding How to forage optimally...
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06Forage06x - S u r v iv in g I I : G e ttin g fo o d D r D...

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