{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

BSC2010L - Lab Report 2 (Genetics Actual Report)

BSC2010L - Lab Report 2 (Genetics Actual Report) - William...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
William Linkous Section 0506, Page 1 Abstract. The determination of evolution can be determined through isolating genes, using electrophoresis, and applying results to the Hardy-Weinberg Equation. In this experiment the Alu element gene, TPA -25, is isolated and tested for the amount of each allele in a lab class sample. Through using a Chi-Square test the level of adherence to the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium can be determined and infer whether or not evolution is occurring based on this. Introduction. One of the leading genres of study in contemporary science is evolution and its effects. Researchers have learned how to find, isolate, and analyze specific genes and alleles to determine their genotypic and phenotypic traits. With this science a plethora of knowledge about our own human genomes can hint towards evolutionary trends in an entire population. Branco et al. demonstrated this in their study of Azorean ancestry compared to Portugalian stating, “ACE and TPA-25 show the highest values of heterozygosity in both populations,” and, “…the Azores shows no significant genetic differences from that of mainland Portugal and that it is an outbred population.” (p. 223) There are many different techniques of doing this, but one particularly effective technique is something called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This system works by amplifying (replicating) a specific DNA section of interest using DNA polymerase (in this study Taq polymerase) and a particular primer (in this study – oligonucleotide primers) which will target the DNA sequence. The DNA sequence of interest is an Alu element located on chromosome 8 called TPA-25 (tissue plasminogen activator). Alu elements are spread throughout primate DNA, and the presence of such genes as TPA-25 can
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
William Linkous Section 0506, Page 2 indicate the evolution of humans from nonhuman primates or amongst themselves. As Batzer et al. stated in their analyses of Alu insertions, “…four polymorphic Alu insertions were shown to be absent from the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates, consistent with their arising as human genetic polymorphisms sometime after the human/ African ape divergence.” (p. 12288) After analyzing the representation of alleles for TPA-25, they can be applied to the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in order to determine whether or not evolution has occurred. This Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium is a keystone for determining whether or not evolution is occurring since any deviation from its standard values proves evolution. If TPA-25 is successfully isolated and analyzed for allelic frequency, I believe that the population will not break Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern