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NAVAL HISTORY EXAM 1. According to one of your readings, “strategy is defined as the plan or method for attaining broad political, economic, and military goals in peacetime and war.” Analyze American naval strategy during FOUR of the following conflicts: the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Civil War, the Spanish American War, World War I, World War II, and Vietnam. What are the most common elements of American naval strategy during these wars? What are the most important differences, and what are the origins of those differences? Naval strategy should include the activities of the Marine Corps, a naval service. From “Navies in History” reading----- The makers of strategy have often been civilian officials; their regular problem has been how to use the navy day to day in peacetime and in small, distant skirmishes. When planning for war they have worked closely with the army. Invariably, domestic priorities and partisan politics entangle military and naval logic. Why? Because navies are expensive. They take time to build and train. And once built, they last a long time. The fleet cruising on a distant station has been wrestled into place by a struggle among many participants, each favoring a different strategic calculus, few of them ship captains, fewer likely to have foreseen the contingency at hand. to go to war has usually found the army devising ways for the navy to transport and support land forces while naval officers instinctively incline to blue water schemes to defeat the enemy's navy and interdict his shipping. American Naval Strategy (DEFENSIVE) 1. Revolutionary- a. Naval strategy: defensive and commerce raiding and coastal protection b. Useless Navy-Esek Hopkins c. French Navy essentially did everything d. Privateering-Esek Hopkins, privateers captured 15,000 prisoners vs. the 16,000 prisoners captured by the Army. Paid, so they had good incentive. Downfall was that they were selfish and not so patriotic e. JPJ-in the sense of values, founder of Navy. Meritorious, most famous, but not ranked as high due to politics. Hurts British merchant system, which helps win the war. Rise insurance rates 2. 1812- a. Naval strategy: protect coast, divert attention, prevent harassment b. Battle of Lake Erie- one of the most important battles of the war, prevented advance to Detroit, forced british to give up invasion of ohio, allowed gen harrison’s army to assume the offensive, perry transported harrisons army to intercept british forcesand Americans won a tactical battle at Thames
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c. Battle of Lake Champlain- ended final invasion of states, denied brits leverage over great lakes and NE states, forced Prevost to turn his army around and return to Canada, lake was needed to maintain communication with army, forced withdrawl d. Role of the Navy in 1812- to protect coast, divert attention, prevent harassment e. David Porter- USS Essex crusied independently for a long period of time demonstrated the effect a single warship could have on maritime trade or a whaling
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2010 for the course MATH SM212 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '10 term at UPR Humacao.

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