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Unformatted text preview: ID’s Esek Hopkins- was Commander in Chief of the Fleet throughout the American Revolutionary War . The Battle of Nassau , an assault on the British colony there, Esek captured munitions desperately needed in the War of Independence. However, this was all against the wishes of Congress, he was supposed to be protect the southern colonies Hopkins had disregarded his first set of Congressional orders directing him to rid the Chesapeake of British cruisers, instead raiding New Providence. This was compounded by allegations of inaction such as in the engagement versus HMS Glasgow on the return voyage from New Providence. Because of the continuing debacle, on 2 January 1778 , Hopkins was relieved of his command permanently. Seven Years' War/French and Indian War- The war against the French & Indians left UK bankrupt & needing taxes. Essentially weakened the British forces enough to win the war. Stamp Act/Townsend Acts/Intolerable Acts- Stamp Act (affixed an official stamp on wills, titles, etc. Surprised at the response, Parliament repealed). Townsend Act (specified duties on lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. Americans recognized that it was to raise revenue). Intolerable Acts (in response to the Boston Tea Party, clamped Boston under martial law, closed Boston harbor). Benedict Arnold- A command of an American expedition to Quebec in Brit –held Canada to the them COL. Many Americans believed the Canadians would be eager to join the cause. Attack on the Canadian citadel was a disaster, and he was wounded. Lake Champlain, requested permission to build an American Navy on the lake. By end of August, he was in control of the flotilla. Battle of Valcour Island- Arnold positioned his flotilla in the lee of Valcour, Unoccupied and heavily forested island off western coast of the lake. Towards end of day, looked as it Brits would win. With dawn, they would complete victory. Arnold slipped past them in shallow water, but the forces were in hot pursuit in morning. Only five vessels made it out to Crown Point. Made it too late for Brits to launch a full-fledged campaign into NY. Would culminate the Brit defeat at Saratoga. John Hawkins- was an English shipbuilder, naval administrator and commander, merchant , navigator , and slave trader . As treasurer (1577) and controller (1589) of the Royal Navy , he rebuilt older ships and helped design the faster ships that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588. He later devised the naval blockade to intercept Spanish treasure ships. One of the foremost seamen of 16th-century England, he was the chief architect of the Elizabethan navy. In the battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588, Hawkins served as a vice admiral and was knighted for his role Francis Drake- was an English sea captain , privateer , navigator , slaver , a renowned pirate , and politician of the Elizabethan era . Queen Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada...
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