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Unformatted text preview: IDs #2 ABCD ships (1883)-Hunt submitted a report that constructed four new steel-hulled warshipsthree armored cruisers and a dispatch vessel with modern steam plants. Because of first letter of names (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, and Dolphin) became ABCD. 19 th century look w/ flush decks & towering masts, but all steel double hulls w/ watertight compartments and electric! Stephen Luce- COMMO, opened doors of Naval War College in Newport, RI, the purpose of which was to sensitize mid-career naval officers to the broader questions of national policy and application of naval power. Selected Mahan as one of 1 st instructors for faculty of NWC. RADM Alfred Thayer Mahan-One of the first instructors at NWC, developed series of lectures which he postulated that a strong navyspecifically a fleet of ships-of-the-line had been the key instrument that had made Britain a great power. In 1890, collected lectures into The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. INSTANT SUCCESS! Provided intellectual rationale for a policy that was in midst of change. Theodore Roosevelt- When the accident of assassination carried Theo into presidency, the Navy gained a champion well able to exploit the Spanish War triumphs of the service to win more ships & some technical deficiencies. The Spanish War and Rooseveltian enthusiasm made Mahan a prophet so thoroughly honored that hardly anyone continued asking the questions that could have been raised about the applicability of his strategic ideas to the United States. Instead, ideas lifted from Mahan became shibboleths, such as Roosevelts parting injunction to his successor in the WH, never to divide the fleet between Atlantic and Pacific before the Panama Canal was completed; itself an oversimplification of strategic principle, this become Never divide the fleet. Roosevelt easily persuaded Congress to authorize 10 first-class battleships within four years, and thus he hurried the Navy on its way toward second place in battleship strength in the world. I t was an embarrassment when the UK came out with the Dreadnought (a super battleship, rendering all his obsolete). Roosevelt got 4 Dreadnought-esque battleships out of Congress. He urged the construction of a system of naval bases in the new possessions (like Philippines). The "Achilles heel" of American defense- The Philippines, according to Roosevelt. The Army, with a total authorized strength of less than 100,000 could not create a garrison strong enough to defend a Philippine base until the fleet could arrive. In 1909, the Navy withdrew the site of its projected major Pacific base to Pearl Harbor. Battle of Manila Bay-(1898) COMMO George Dewey and the American fleet including four cruisers, two gunboats, and one revenue cutter mounting a total 117 guns (including ten 8- inch guns). The Spanish fleet under RADM Don Patricio Monotojo consisted of only one modern cruiser and was only half the size of Deweys Olympia . Deweys run into Manila Bay suggested Farraguts run past the Mobile forts in 1864, and his tactics inside the bay...
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