As the title of the novel makes clear,
A Farewell to Arms
concerns itself primarily with war, namely the process by which Frederic Henry
removes himself from it and leaves it behind. The few characters in the novel who actually support the effort—Ettore Moretti and Gino—come
across as a dull braggart and a naïve youth, respectively. The majority of the characters remain ambivalent about the war, resentful of the terrible
destruction it causes, doubtful of the glory it supposedly brings.
The novel offers masterful descriptions of the conflict’s senseless brutality and violent chaos: the scene of the Italian army’s retreat remains one
of the most profound evocations of war in American literature. As the neat columns of men begin to crumble, so too do the soldiers’ nerves,
minds, and capacity for rational thought and moral judgment. Henry’s shooting of the engineer for refusing to help free the car from the mud
shocks the reader for two reasons: first, the violent outburst seems at odds with Henry’s coolly detached character; second, the incident occurs in
a setting that robs it of its moral import—the complicity of Henry’s fellow soldiers legitimizes the killing. The murder of the engineer seems
justifiable because it is an inevitable by-product of the spiraling violence and disorder of the war.
Nevertheless, the novel cannot be said to condemn the war;
A Farewell to Arms
is hardly the work of a pacifist. Instead, just as the innocent
engineer’s death is an inevitability of war, so is war the inevitable outcome of a cruel, senseless world. Hemingway suggests that war is nothing
more than the dark, murderous extension of a world that refuses to acknowledge, protect, or preserve true love.
The Relationship Between Love and Pain
Against the backdrop of war, Hemingway offers a deep, mournful meditation on the nature of love. No sooner does Catherine announce to Henry
that she is in mourning for her dead fiancé than she begins a game meant to seduce Henry. Her reasons for doing so are clear: she wants to
distance herself from the pain of her loss. Likewise, Henry intends to get as far away from talk of the war as possible. In each other, Henry and
Catherine find temporary solace from the things that plague them. The couple’s feelings for each other quickly pass from an amusement that
distracts them to the very fuel that sustains them. Henry’s understanding of how meaningful his love for Catherine is outweighs any consideration
for the emptiness of abstract ideals such as honor, enabling him to flee the war and seek her out. Reunited, they plan an idyllic life together that
promises to act as a salve for the damage that the war has inflicted. Far away from the decimated Italian countryside, each intends to be the
other’s refuge. If they are to achieve physical, emotional, and psychological healing, they have found the perfect place in the safe remove of the
Swiss mountains. The tragedy of the novel rests in the fact that their love, even when genuine, can never be more than temporary in this world.