Handout-10 - Chemistry 111 Fall, 2005 Prof. Simpson...

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Chemistry 111 Fall, 2005 Prof. Simpson Chemistry 111 Handout #10 Acid and Base Strength For sample problems using these concepts, see the practice exams for Exam 4 and for the Final Acid Strength = the ability of a compound to donate a proton (H + ). HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K = K a A strong acid is one that dissociates completely in water to its conjugate base and H 3 O + . Consequences : the pH of a strong acid solution can be determined directly by the initial concentration of the acid. the pH does not depend on the identity of the strong acid when the acid is dissolved in water. This is called the leveling effect . K a > 1 for strong acids One Exception : H 2 SO 4 is a diprotic acid, so it can donate up to 2 H + species. The first ioinization (H 2 SO 4 Æ HSO 4 - ) is a strong one, but the second (HSO 4 - Æ S O 4 2- ) is not. For example : a 0.01 M HCl solution has a pH of 2. So does a 0.01 M solution of nitric a c i d ( H N O 3 ), a solution of perchloric acid (HClO 4 ), and 0.01 M solutions of hydrobromic (HBr) and hydroiodic (HI) acids. There are 7 strong acids you need to know : HI, HBr, HClO 4 , HCl, HClO 3 , H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 The hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) marks the transition point between strong and weak acids. The K a of H 3 O + is 1
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Handout-10 - Chemistry 111 Fall, 2005 Prof. Simpson...

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