88 - Minerals 221 For Class Presentation Full About 40...

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Unformatted text preview: Minerals 221 For Class Presentation Full About 40 minerals are found in the body Only about 18 are essential A few more have been proposed but not proven (becomes academic interesting but not practically important) Macro Minerals Needed in relatively large amounts Expressed as % of the diet Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S Trace Elements Iron (Fe) 20-80 ppm Zinc (Zn) 10-50 ppm Copper (Cu) 1-5 ppm Cobalt (Co) .02-.1 ppm Manganese (Mn) .2-.5 ppm Iodine (I) .3-.6 ppm Molybdenum (Mo) 1-4 ppm Selenium (Se) .1-3 ppm Chromium (Cr) ? Fluoride (F) ? Ultra Trace Elements - Proposed Arsenic Barium Boron Bromine Cadmium Vanadium Lead Lithium Nickel Silicon Strontium Tin Toxic Elements Essential but highly toxic Se, Mo, I, Cu, F Non-essential, toxic As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Ra, Pu, others **##BOOM##**, carcinogen Trace Minerals Iron (Fe) prevents anemia Copper (Cu) need it to use Fe, connective tissue formation Zinc (Zn) prevents parakeratosis Iodine (I) prevents goiter Manganese (Mn) need for proper bone, activates enzymes How do you determine the essentiality of a mineral? General Functions of Minerals Structural Activators of enzymes Osmotic balance and Acid/base balance Constituents of organic compounds Ca Most of the Ca is in the bones and teeth Important Ca in blood, muscle, other soft tissues Ca control in the body Very elaborate system to maintain constant blood calcium level Too little or too much is fatal Parathyroid glands monitor blood Ca Low level causes release of PTH PTH raises blood Ca By several mechanismsm Effects of PTH INCREASE BONE RESORPTION Liberates Ca from bone to blood Decrease renal Ca loss Increase Ca absorption from gut Other effects Control of blood Ca - Calcitonin To maintain a fine degree of control of blood Ca, calcitonin STOPS bone resorption. Fast acting and SHORT, whereas PTH is SLOW acting and long. So: Long standing tendency to low Ca can lead to: Nutritional Secondary Nutritional Hyperparathyroidism Drink your milk or get enough Ca otherwise or: Your BONES will ROT and your TEETH will FALL OUT Your BONES will ROT and your TEETH will FALL OUT Ratio of Ca to P VERY Important Ca:P is about 2:1 in bone Calcium Functions Regulation of excitability in nerves Normal action of muscle Blood clotting Bone and teeth deposition Calcium deficiency - Rickets Weakened skeleton Note cracks in bones Live cow is weak In adult animals this is called osteomalacia Bottom left - pelvic bones show 3 breaks Right - pelvic bones of cow above Calcium deficiency Pig exhibits deformed skeleton Weak hind quarters Easily broken bones Calcium Deficiency Cow with Milk Fever Milk fever is from low Ca in the blood From failure to adapt and draw Ca from bone fast enough when needed. Cow is "down", lethargic, ill. Ca deficiency explained Growth is NOT much affected by deficiency Reason to maintain correct Ca is not performance Better ration is CHEAPER though Ground limestone is source Road Rock Ca Sources Milk and leafy crops LEGUMES Cereals are POOR sources Animal by-products with bone GROUND LIMESTONE is main supplement Ca:P ratio in diet Most diets 1:1 to 2:1 Laying hens need much more Ca Eggshell production Ruminants can tolerate 8:1 from natural sources Best if 1:1 to 1.5:1 Phosphorus About 80% of P is in bone but much higher proportion than Ca in soft tissue Phosphoproteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids, phosphorylated energy compounds P Deficiency symptoms 1 Rickets or osteomalacia 2 Pica, or depraved appetite, has been noted in cattle. a. Animals chew wood, bones, rags and other foreign objects. 3. Low blood serum levels. 4. In chronic cases may have stiff joints and muscular weakness. 5. Decreased appetite, low weight gains, low milk production. 6. Low fertility. Phosphorus Deficiency Calcium and Phosphorus are so interrelated that many similar symptoms are presented. Severe deficiency of either, or an imbalance, results in rickets or osteomalacia. Phosphorus deficiency affects feed intake and growth more, however. Phosphorus Deficiency Calf at top shows poor condition, rough hair coat, evidence of not eating Calf at bottom is filled out better, smooth, slick and healthy by comparison. Phosphorus Deficiency Deformed skeletal structure Sheep are knockkneed anyway, but not this bad! Phosphorus Deficiency Phosphorus deficiency in pig at left Weak legs Deformed bones Poorer growth Phosphorus Deficiency Poor growth of calf at top Bottom illustrates "PICA", a depraved appetite P Sources 1. Milk, cereal grains, meat and fish products 2. Forages tend to be low and variable. Supplements Dicalcium Phosphate, Monocalcium PO4 Defluorinated Rock phosphates Phosphoric Acid or Sodium Phosphate % Phosphorus wheat bran cottonseed meal skimmilk (dry) linseed meal gluten feed soybeans brewers grains wheat oats corn alfalfa hay timothy hay clover hay corn silage (dry) corn stover 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 gluten meal corn silage corn stover soybeans timothy hay cottonseed wheat bran oats wheat corn 0 0.5 linseed meal brewers grains alfalfa hay clover hay skimmilk (dry) 1 Calcium, % 1.5 2 Interaction with Vitamin D Need Vit D to use Ca and P, so: To prevent Rickets need: Enough Ca Enough P Correct ratio of Ca to P Sufficient Vitamin D Factors affecting absorption and excretion Must be in solution acid helps > absorption Fe, Al, Mg, Be make P insoluble Oxalates decrease Ca absorption Phytates decrease Ca & P absorption May use phytase to improve Fatty acids can interfere Excretion Ca excreted via feces P excreted In feces by herbivores In urine by carnivores Deposition/mobilization Bones serve as a storehouse Continuous interchange with blood ` Magnesium Mg Magnesium Magnesium is needed in many enzyme systems in addition to the skeleton It is usually abundant in feeds and water supplies It's main deficiency concern is to prevent grass tetany (not illustrated) Mg Body contains .05% Mg, 70% in skeleton 2.3 + 0.36 mg% in serum Associated with Ca and P Activator of enzymes Enzymes Ones that split and transfer Phosphatases ATP, rx for muscle contraction And protein, fat, nucleic acid & coenzyme synthesis Glucose utilization Methyl group transfer Oxidative phosphorylation, decarboxylation Magnesium deficiency This rat isn't Mg deficient but let's pretend that it is. (It's actually B1 deficient Mg deficiency Deficient pig on right lacks size & is unthrifty has abnormal bone leg weakness & arched back Pig on left got 413 ppm Mg, on right 70 ppm Mg for 3 weeks. Mg deficiency Aorta showing calcification Mineral deposits of soft tissue is a Mg deficiency symptom (Unfortunately, hardened arteries in people doesn't seem to be as simple as Mg deficiency) Grass tetany Problem in calves in spring High mortality Several other factors influence, BUT Solution is increase Mg Add MgO to feed or min mix or salt ` Sodium Sodium is deficient in plants We always supplement with salt (NaCl) The chlorine is required, but no deficiency symptoms are shown. Na Chief cation OUTSIDE of cells Cells have a pump mechanism to move Na out Replaced by potassium (K) Sodium Deficiency (salt) General unthriftyness Decreased appetite Decreased production Salt LEVEL 0.5% to 1% of diet for most animals SPECIAL STORY IN PIGS 0.2% would be enough, .25% recommended But not in sows Since sows limit fed, they need more Increases litters size ` Potassium Functions Role in osmotic regulation Principle cation in cells Role in nerve and muscle excitablity Activity of some enzymes CHO metab. K (potassium) deficiency Dairy Cow Decreased feed intake and production Loss of hair condition PICA (abnormal appetite) Low K in blood Retarded growth Weakness and tetany - death Chick K deficiency Deficient lamb Broken wool Thin - poor growth Most likely problems with K def. Ruminants fed high grain diets Feedlot cattle Dairy cattle ` Sulfur Occurs in the amino acids methionine, cystine and cysteine In vitamins biotin and thiamine Present in most proteins, therefore, and important in connective tissue Inorganic S of no nutritional value (except to ruminants where bacteria use it to make the organic compounds). Sulfur deficiency Lamb at right shows decreased growth Wool breakage Meeting the S need Nonruminants need methionine (cystine can meet part of the need) Ruminants, add S and let the bacteria incorporate it ` IRON Part of hemoglobin in the blood Important in many enzymes, especially cytochrome enzymes Ability to change valence state from +3 to +2 (and back) of crucial importance Fe (iron) Control of level in the body Unlike other minerals, iron is controlled at the absorption level. Normally very low absorption rate. Body holds and reuses iron tenaciously. Poor mechanisms for elimination of iron. Therefore, iron toxicity in rare instances of poor limitation of absorption. Iron deficiency Iron deficiency anemia Poor growth In worst instance, "Thumps" - labored breathing, oxygen deficit. Death. Iron deficiency Anemia is apparent in pig on the right Membranes are pale Richness of red color in blood is the measure of hemoglobin level Most animals don't need much Baby pigs Animals experiencing blood loss Parturition Wormy or sick or injured Human women Excess may be harmful Microbes need Fe to grow also Milk and blood have transfer proteins to limit free iron and make it available only to the animal's tissues ` Copper Copper is necessary in order to use Iron to form hemoglobin, therefore deficiency also results in anemia Part of several enzyme systems Necessary for normal pigmentation of hair and wool Cu deficiency Anemia Poor growth Bone disorders connective tissue Scouring Depigmentation of hair, wool Lesions in brain stem & spinal cord Cu-Mo-Sulfate Mo increases need for Cu (cattle) Cu (copper) deficiency Swayback of lambs Degeneration of myelination of nerve cells leads to ataxia. Sheep are, however, very sensitive to Cu toxicity with a narrow difference between requirement and toxicity. Cu deficiency Poor wool growth Lack of normal crimping Pigmentation affected Cu deficiency Notice drawing under of rear legs and crookedness of forelegs. Normal bone formation affected. Cu deficiency Hair pigmentation is very sensitive to copper deficiency This animal would normally be black. Cu at High Levels Copper is sometimes fed to pigs at 150 to 200 ppm for antibiotic-like growth response. Must be high enough to obtain response Must not be higher or toxic ` Cobalt Deficiency Cobalt is part of Vitamin B12 so Co deficiency is B12 deficiency. Pernicious anemia Inanition - effects the same as starvation. Co deficiency Loss of appetite Rough haircoat Emaciation, malnutrition Retarded growth Weak and anemic Co deficiency Ruminant animals can benefit from Co because rumen microbes use it to make Vit B12. Nonruminants must have Co as part of B12. Iodine Component of thyroxin, a hormone from the thyroid gland that controls basal metabolic rate. Deficiency symptom is GOITER (enlarged thyroid). Also other symptoms, such as weak dead pigs at birth. Iodine deficiency Weak hairless pigs at birth Evidence of goiter Stillbirths Iodine deficiency Goiter (enlarged thyroid) in calf Iodine deficiency Goiter in ewe Goiter in lamb fetus Goitrogens Toxicity of some plants ` Manganese (Mn) Activator of several enzymes Deficiency symptoms: skeletal deformities reproductive failure PEROSIS (slipped tendon) in chicks lameness in pigs Mn deficiency Skeletal deformities in newborn calf Mn deficiency Perosis (slipped tendon) in hen Mn deficiency Retracted head in Mn deficiency is from poor connective tissue formation. ` Zinc (Zn) Constituent of enzymes Deficiency symptoms Pigs - poor growth, parakeratosis Ruminants - parakeratosis, dermititis, rough appearance, failure of wounds to heal Chicks - poor growth, poor feathering, skin lesions Enzymes Carbonic anhydrase Glutamic dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenase Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Lactic dehydrogenase Symptoms Rat Pig Slow growth Testicular atrophy Skin lesions Impaired hair development Low growth-F/G Parakeratosis Zn deficiency Both sheep were born the same day. Sheep at left was Zn deficient. Zn deficiency Zn deficient calf shows skin lesions on legs and belly. Poor growth Recovery complete after Zn supplementation Zn deficiency - Parakeratosis Control pig in center, severe on right and mild deficiency on left. Right photo shows same pigs healing after 16 days supplementation with Zn. Zinc at High Levels Zinc is now being added at high levels to baby pig diets to aid growth and prevent scours. (1000 ppm) ` Selenium (Se) Selenium toxicity, grass staggers. While required, there is no illustration of a deficiency here, only toxicity. Deficiency like Vit E. Selenium (Se) Grass staggers, toxicity Some plants are toxic because of accumulation of Se on high Se-containing soils. Selenium (Se) Se toxicity in sheep Loss of wool, emaciation, sloughing of hooves, lameness, paralysis, grating of teeth, heart and liver damage, death. Se required along with Vit E Very low in plants in IN, MI, OH Deaths in young animals Supplementation FDA regulated ` Chromium (Cr) Required, involved in CHO metabolism Rqmt very low, unknown Supplement taken by some people to increase muscularity. Results unknown. Effects in animals variable, uncertain. ` Fluoride (fluorine) (F) If required, the level is so low even dust contamination in the air meets the need Value is in humans Teeth protected by Tooth paste Tooth treatment Water supply ` Ultra Trace Elements - Proposed Arsenic Barium Boron Bromine Cadmium Vanadium Lead Lithium Nickel Silicon Strontium Tin Any if truly needed are required only in insignificantly small amounts End of mineral presentation ...
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88 - Minerals 221 For Class Presentation Full About 40...

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