666 - MYCOTOXINS Dale M. Forsyth Dept of Animal Sciences...

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MYCOTOXINS Dale M. Forsyth Dept of Animal Sciences Purdue University
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MYCOTOXINS Toxins produced by fungi Metabolic products or by-products of fungi  (molds)
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Why Great Concern? Some mycotoxins are DEADLY at very  small dosages. Some mycotoxins are carcinogenic. Some mycotoxins cause huge losses in  productivity in animals.
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Most fungi do not produce Mycotoxins Many fungi are edible Mushrooms are fungi Moldy feeds may be  degraded without  presence of  mycotoxin, or may be  unaffected in value. some material  courtesy of Mark  Diekman
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DIPLODIA Infested Corn Specie Diet Wkly gain, g Feed, % of BW F/G Rat Autoclaved Diplodia 31.8 30.3 12.0 a 11.0 b 3.70 4.88 Mouse Autoclaved Diplodia 2.27 a 1.87 b 28.2 a 25.7 b 26.3 27.3 Hamster Autoclaved Diplodia 7.19 a 4.43 b 12.0 11.6 Guinea pig Autoclaved Diplodia 203.4 b 286.5 a 5.16 4.76 6.82 b 4.60 a
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Effect of fungus Damage on Digestibility of Corn by Rats I tem Sound Diplodia zeae Sound Fusarium Moniliforme Energy studies   Dig. Energy,% 90.7 89.4 91.0 89.5   Body Wt gain 100 95 100 81 Protein studies   Dig. Nitrogen,% 83.6 81.2 81.9 75.0 (Corn essentially 100% Fungus damaged) Mitchel & Beadles, 1940
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Feeds Most Susceptible to Fungi- producing Mycotoxins Corn Wheat Oats Barley Recently  Sorghum Cottonseed Peanut meal Rye
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Moldy grain is usually nontoxic Competition between toxic and nontoxic  molds. Entire mold population is not producing  mycotoxin Conditions for growth are different for  mold growth vs mycotoxin production
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Molds that attack grain can: Decrease grade Kernel damage odor Decrease milling quality Decrease seed germination Decrease dry matter Decrease feeding value (sometimes)
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Mycotoxins can cause: Death Poor performance from low FI, ADG Respiratory problems Reproductive problems Liver, kidney or other organ damage Cancer
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Mycotoxins Factors causing variation in effects Species, breed Age Sex Nutritional status Other diseases Other mycotoxins Extent of exposure
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Some mycotoxins are formed in the field, some in storage Storage conditions that favor  production of mycotoxins: Temperature (40 - 90 o  F ; 4 - 32 o  C) Relative Humidity (> 70%) Moisture (22-23% in grain) Oxygen (1-2%)
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MOST COMMON MYCOTOXINS in the USA DEOXYNIVALENOL (vomitoxin)  Fusarium ZEARALENONE                       (Gibberella) AFLATOXIN -  Aspergillus flavus   FUMONISON - 
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2010 for the course ANSC 221 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University.

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666 - MYCOTOXINS Dale M. Forsyth Dept of Animal Sciences...

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