TCA Cycle - NADH NADH NADH FAD FADH2 NADH NAD+ CO2 TCA CO2...

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NADH NADH NADH FAD FADH 2 NADH NAD + CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 H 2 O H 2 O GTP GDP ATP ADP CoASH CoASH TCA Cycle (aka citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle) in absence of O 2 , pyruvate is reduced to a fermentation product as NADH is reoxidized to NAD + in presence of O 2 o pyruvate is completely oxidized to CO 2 by TCA cycle o reducing equivalents (principally NADH) that are made by the TCA cycle are reoxidized by respiratory e - transport chain (ETC), w/ oxidative phosphorylation (oxidation is coupled to ATP synthesis) o aerobic pathways permit production of 30-38 molecules of ATP per glucose oxidized (2 from glycolysis, 2 from TCA cycle, rest from ETC) o reducing equivalents released in oxidative rxns of glycolysis, pyruvate decarboxylation, and TCA cycle are captured as NADH and FADH 2 respiration: metabolic process of ATP production in which inorganic molecules function as e - acceptors fermentation: metabolic process for ATP production in which organic molecules function as e - acceptors Cycle Overview: o In eukaryotes, all these rxns occur in the mitochondrion, so pyruvate must first be transported into the mitochondrion o Pyruvate is decarboxylated to Acetyl-CoA prior to entry to TCA cycle – so for each glucose that enters glycolysis, two 2C units enter the TCA cycle o each turn of the cycle liberates 2 CO 2 , 2 NADH, 1 FADH 2 , and 1 ATP o fatty acids enter at the level of Acetyl-CoA o is a pathway for the complete oxidation of Acetyl-CoA to CO 2
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Cycle
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o Before: Pantothenic acid is required to synthesize CoA functionality of CoA mediated by reactive –SH (sulfhydryl) group Pyruvate Dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA PDH complex – large, complex, multi-subunit structure o Enzymes
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TCA Cycle - NADH NADH NADH FAD FADH2 NADH NAD+ CO2 TCA CO2...

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