7_Synapses - Synaptic Transmission-Review Synapses are the...

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Synaptic Transmission-- Review
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Synapses are the sites at which most communication happens between one neuron and another
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Neurons are physically separate, even at synapses. At synapses, the space between the two neurons is the synaptic cleft
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Transmission-1 At synapses, the neuronal signal is transduced from being electrical to being chemical, and then back again. This process is slower than transmission along an axon.
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Transmission-2 The depolarization of the action potential spreads throughout the axon, including into
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Transmission-3 Synapses have vesicles containing the chemical that will pass on the signal neurotransmitters stored in transmitter vesicles
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Transmission-4 Synapses often contain the molecular machinery to synthesize and package the transmitter into the vesicles
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Transmission-5 Each vesicle may contain several thousand molecules of the transmitter
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Transmission-6 Vesicles are tethered to the synaptic ending by contractile proteins
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Transmission-7 In addition to the voltage-gated ion channels that propagate the action potential, synapses have high levels of voltage gated Ca++ channels
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Transmission-8 When the action potential arrives, depolarization causes these to open, allowing Ca++ to enter the presynaptic ending. The Ca++ causes vesicle tether proteins to contract, pulling the vesicles to the active zone
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Transmission-9 Vesicles fuse with the membrane of the synapse, releasing their contents into the cleft
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Transmission-10 Perhaps several dozen neurotransmitters act in the nervous system. Several we will talk about are: Glutamate the most common transmitter in the CNS. Usually excitatory GABA the most common inhibitory transmitter in the CNS Acetylcholine (ACh)
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7_Synapses - Synaptic Transmission-Review Synapses are the...

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